Cell Cycle and Proliferation

Cell proliferation is described as an increase in cell number in any given tissue in vivo or cell culture plates in vitro. Cells proliferate themselves, in their favourable conditions, by a process known as Cell Cycle. Cell cycle is defined as an event that takes place in cells, where one cell divides itself into two daughter cells. The event as a whole is mainly divided into several phases such as Gap1 (G1) phase, Synthesis (S) phase and Gap2-Mitosis (G2-M) phase. During G1 phase, cells gather enough building blocks to be able to make DNA in S phase as well create enough energy so it can sustain once they divide themselves and be able to start all over again. In G2-M phase, cells verify the DNA generated in S-phase and if everything is verified, it moves forward and divides itself into two daughter cells, dividing the content in exactly half. Cell cycle is very tightly regulated process where if any process goes wrong, it just halts the cell cycle progression. If the damage is repairable then cells try to activate the pathways that fixes the damage or if the damage is not salvageable then it does activate the apoptotic machinery to kill the cells so no anomaly spreads towards new cells generated through cell cycle process.

Figure 1. Jurkat cells were treated without (red) or with 20 ?M camptothecin (blue) in a 37 oC, 5% CO2 incubator for about 8 hours, and assayed with Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Cell Cycle Assay kit (Cat# 22841) according to the kit instruction. The fluorescence intensity of Nuclear Green™ LCS1 (Component A) was measured with a FACSCalibur™ flow cytometer using the FL1 channel. In growing Jurkat cells, nuclei stained with Nuclear Green™ LCS1 showed G1, S, and G2 phases (red). In camptothecin treated apoptotic cells (B), the fluorescence intensity of Nuclear Green™ LCS1 was decreased, and both S and G2 phases were diminished.

Cell proliferation analysis is a very important aspect for drug development and other biological processes such as measuring compound toxicity, determining the inhibition of tumor cell growth in research. Most cell proliferation assays are developed around measuring the DNA content or analysing cellular metabolism parameters.

CytoTell™ Cell Proliferation Indicators

At AAT Bioquest, we have unique set of assays that covers both to accurately measure cell proliferation. Some assays are also designed to assess the growth of cell population or detect the generation of daughter cells. Upon combining the cytotoxicity tests, these cell proliferation assays could be a very useful tool to assess normal cell health, to measure responses to toxic insults or for prognosis or for diagnosis in several cancers.

Figure 2. Cell proliferation assay with CytoTell™ Green and CFSE. Jurkat cells (~2×106 cells/mL) were stained with CytoTell™ Green or CFSE on Day 0. The cells were passed serially at 1:1 ratio on the day specified. Fluorescence intensity was measured with ACEA NovoCyte 3000 flow cytometer in FITC channel on the day of passage. Successive generations were represented by different colors.

Product Ordering Information

Table 1. Ordering Info for Cell Cycle Assays Products

Cat# Product Name Unit Size
22841 Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Live Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Green Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry* 100 Tests
22842 Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Fixed Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Red Fluorescence Optimized for Flow Cytometry* 100 Tests
22845 Cell Meter™ Fluorimetric Live Cell Cycle Assay Kit *Optimized for 405 nm Violet Laser Excitation* 100 Tests

Table 2. Ordering Info for Cell Proliferation Probes Products

Cat# Product Name Unit Size
22022 CFSE [5-(and 6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester] *CAS 150347-59-4* 25 mg
22028 ReadiUse™ CFSE [5-(and 6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester] *CAS 150347-59-4* 5×500 ug
22240 CytoTell™ UltraGreen 500 Tests
22241 CytoTell™ UltraGreen 2×500 Tests
22251 CytoTell™ Blue 500 Tests
22252 CytoTell™ Blue 2×500 Tests
22253 CytoTell™ Green 500 Tests
22254 CytoTell™ Green 2×500 Tests
22255 CytoTell™ Red 650 500 Tests
22256 CytoTell™ Red 650 2×500 Tests

Table 3. Ordering Info for Cell Viability and Tracking Probes Products

Cat# Product Name Unit Size
21900 Calcein Red™ AM 1 mg
21902 Calcein Deep Red™ 1 mg
21908 Calcein UltraBlue™ AM 10×50 ug
22003 Calcein, AM *UltraPure grade* *CAS 148504-34-1* 1 mg
22004 Calcein, AM *UltraPure grade* *CAS 148504-34-1* 20×50 ug
22007 Calcein Blue, AM *CAS 168482-84-6* 1 mg
22008 Calcein Orange™ sodium salt 1 mg
22012 CytoCalcein™ Violet 450 *Excited at 405 nm* 1 mg
22013 CytoCalcein™ Violet 500 *Excited at 405 nm* 1 mg
22014 CytoTrace™ Orange CMTMR *CAS 323192-14-9* 10×50 ug


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