LSBio offers many products related to coronavirus, including antibodies, proteins, and expression-ready ORF clones.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a helical nucleocapsid. The genomic size of coronavirus ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus. Based on genetic and antigenic criteria, CoVs have been organized into three groups: a-CoVs, ß-CoVs, ?-CoVs. Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N).
The S protein mediates attachment of the virus to the host cell surface receptors and promotes subsequent fusion between the viral and host cell membranes to facilitate viral entry into the host cell. The N protein binds to the CoV genome and makes up the helical nucleocapsid. The M protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope. It is also regarded as the central organizer of CoV assembly, interacting with all other major coronaviral structural proteins. The E protein is the smallest of the major structural proteins, but also the most enigmatic. During the replication cycle, E is abundantly expressed inside the infected cell, but only a small portion is incorporated into the virion envelope. The genome of SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) Coronavirus has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-likeCoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein proteins also clusters closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike’s receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein.
K. Dhama, R.V.S. Pawaiya, S. Chakraborty, R. Tiwari, M. Saminathan and A.K. Verma, 2014. Coronavirus Infection in Equines: A Review. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 164-176.