Stem Cells

Stem Cells are characterised by their two properties of capability of renewing themselves and differentiating into a diverse range of cell types. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells and somatic or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, while adult stem cells are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, dividing essentially without limit to replenish specialized cells. Because of their pluripotency and unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Reprogramming of somatic cells with defined factors can be a resolution to the problem of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in embryonic stem cell therapies. Adult cells, which have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells, are referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing and give rise to many cell types that constitute the tumour, and can therefore form tumours. Such cells have been found in various types of human tumours and might be attractive targets for cancer treatment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewable cell types that are identified in most types of liquid and solid cancers and contributed to tumor onset, expansion, resistance, recurrence, and metastasis after therapy. CSCs are identified from the expression of cell surface markers, which is tumor-type dependent. The transition between CSCs with cancer cells and other non-CSCs occurs in cancers, which is possibly under the control of signals from CSCs and tumor microenvironment (TME), including CSC niche. Cancer-associated fibroblasts are among the most influential cells for promoting both differentiation of CSCs and dedifferentiation of non-CSCs toward attaining a CSC-like phenotype. WNT/β-catenin, transforming growth factor-β, Hedgehog, and Notch are important signals for maintaining self-renewal in CSCs. An effective therapeutic strategy relies on targeting both CSCs and non-CSCs to remove a possible chance of tumor relapse. There are multiple ways to target CSCs, including immunotherapy, hormone therapy, (mi)siRNA delivery, and gene knockout. Such approaches can be designed for suppressing CSC stemness, tumorigenic cues from TME, CSC extrinsic and/or intrinsic signaling, hypoxia or for promoting differentiation in the cells. Because of sharing a range of characteristics to normal stem/progenitor cells, CSCs must be targeted based on their unique markers and their preferential expression of antigens.

Cancer Stem Cell Markers
Bladder Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  CD44  CD47  CEACAM6
Breast Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  IL8Ra/CXCR1/CD181  Connexin 43/GJA1  ITGA6 
BMI1  CXCR4/CD184  GLI1  PON1 
CD24  DLL4 GLI2  CD133/PROM1 
CD44  Her2/ERBB2  IL-6R  PTEN
Colon Cancer Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  CD44  GLI1  Musashi 1/MSI1 
ALDH1A1  DPP4/CD26  LGR5  CD133/PROM1
Gastric Cancer Stem Cell Markers
CD44  DLL4  LGR5
Glioma/Medulloblastoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CXCR4/CD184  L1CAM  Nestin 
ALDH1A1  HIF-2-alpha  c-Maf/MAF  Podoplanin 
BMI1  SSEA1  Musashi 1/MSI1  CD133/PROM1 
CD44  IL-6R  c-Myc/MYC  A20/TNFAIP3
Fractalkine  ITGA6 
Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  BMI1  LGR5  c-MET
ALDH1A1  CD44 
Leukemia Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BMI1  CD44  CLEC12A  TIM-3 
CD34  CD47  GLI1  c-Kit 
CD38  CD96  GLI2  MSI2
Liver Cancer Stem Cell Markers
Alpha-fetoprotein  Merlin/NF2  CD45  Thy1/CD90
CD13 
Lung Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  ALDH1A1  c-Kit  Thy1/CD90
Melanoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ABCB5  CD166/ALCAM  Nestin  CD133/PROM1
BCRP/ABCG2  CD20  NGFR 
Myeloma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ABCB5  CD27  CD20  Syndecan-1/CD138
CD19  CD38 
Osteosarcoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CD44  Endoglin/CD105  Nestin
Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers
AMACR  CD44  Endoglin/CD105  c-Kit
Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  CD24  CXCR4/CD184  PON1
BMI1  CD44 
Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  AMACR  CD151  c-Maf/MAF 
CD166/ALCAM  BMI1  CD44  c-Myc/MYC
ALDH1A1 
Cancer Stem Cell Transcription Factors
Androgen receptor  FOXM1  MITF  SETD2 
MASH1/ASCL1  GATA2  c-Myc/MYC  SIRT2 
ASCL2  GLI1  MYCL  SNAIL/SNAI1 
ATF1  GLI2  NANOG  SOX11 
ATF2  HMGA2  p100/p52  SOX9 
ATF-4  HMGB1  Nkx3.1  STAT3 
CDX2  HNF1A  Nonstructural protein 1/NS1  TAL1 
CDX4  HSF1  ONECUT1  TAZ 
Crtc1  ID1  PAX3  TBX3 
TORC2  ID2  PITX2  AP2 Gamma/TFAP2C 
beta-Catenin  c-Jun  Oct-1/POU2F1  p53 
CHOP/DDIT3  JunD/Jun-D  Oct4  p63 
DLX5  KLF10  PRDM1  TRIM32 
DNMT1  KLF17  PRDM14  TRPS1 
E2F1  KLF4  PROX1  TSC22D1 
EGR1  LMO2  PTF1A  UIMC1 
HIF-2-alpha  c-Maf/MAF  RUNX1  WT1 
ER alpha  MCM2  RUNX3  ZEB1 
ER beta  MEF2C  SALL4  Rex-1/ZFP42
FOSB 

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by somatic cell reprogramming following the exogenous expression of specific transcription factors (Oct-3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc). Stem cell pluripotency can be defined and experimentally evaluated by assessing the ability of starting cell populations to differentiate into somatic cell types that arise from the three vertebrate germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In addition, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are characterized by the ability to undergo long-term self-renewal in vitro when cultured with growth factors provided by feeder cells or defined culture media. Pluripotent stem cell phenotypes can be modulated by chemical compounds and small bioactive molecules that enhance the proliferation or direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Growth Factors
Activins
Inhibin beta A/Activin A  Inhibin beta B  Inhibin beta C/INHBC
BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)
BMP10  BMP4  BMP8A  GDF-2/BMP-9 
BMP15  BMP5  BMP8B  PRCP 
BMP-2  BMP6  GDF10  smad7
BMP-3  BMP7 
FGF Ligands
FGF1  FGF16  FGF21  FGF5 
FGF10  FGF17  FGF22  FGF6 
FGF11  FGF19  FGF23  KGF/FGF-7 
FGF12  FGF20  FGF4  FGF9
GDNF Family Ligands
GDNF  NRTN/Neurturin  PSPN
IGF Ligands
IGF1  IGF-II  IGFL3
TGF-beta Family Ligands
TGF beta 1  TGF beta 2  TGF-beta 3/TGFB3
Wnt Ligands (Wnts)
WNT10A  WNT2B  Wnt5b  WNT8A 
WNT10B  WNT3A  Wnt6  WNT8B 
WNT16  Wnt4  Wnt7a  WNT9B
Wnt2  Wnt5a 
Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  ESRRB  LIN28A  TBX3 
ALK4/ACVR1B  FBX15  c-Maf/MAF  TBX5 
ACVR2B  FGF4  c-Myc/MYC  Cripto 
Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPL  FGF5  NANOG  TERT 
CBX2  GBX2  GCNF/NR6A1  TEX19 
CD9  GDF3  PODXL  THAP11 
E-Cadherin  ITGA6  Oct4  CD30/TNFRSF8 
CDX2  Integrin beta 1  STAT3  5T4/TPBG 
CHD1  c-Kit  SUZ12  UTF1 
DNMT3B  KLF4  TROP2  Rex-1/ZFP42 
DPPA4  KLF5  TBX2  ZIC3
DPPA5  L1TD1 
Pluripotent Stem Cell Transcription Factors
EOMES  MEF2C  SALL1  SUZ12 
FOXO1  MIXL1  SALL4  TBX18 
GATA2  MTF2  SMAD9  TBX6 
GATA3  c-Myc/MYC  SNAIL/SNAI1  THAP11 
GBX2  NANOG  SOX1  p53 
GSC2  p100/p52  SOX15  UTF1 
c-Jun  OTX2  SOX17  WDR5 
KLF2 PAX2  SOX18  WT1 
KLF4  PAX6  SOX3  Rex-1/ZFP42 
KLF5  Oct4  SOX7  ZNF281 
c-Maf/MAF  PRDM14  STAT3  ZSCAN10
MAX 

Hematopoietic stem cells that provide long-term reconstitution can be separated from more mature hematopoietic cells that provide radioprotection and short-term repopulation. All differentiated blood cells from the lymphoid and myeloid lineages arise from HSCs. HSCs can be found in adult bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood. Classic studies in mice describe two populations of Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Long Term and Short Term. Long term HSCs are capable of self renewal, while short term HSCs do not have this capacity. Short term HSCs, also called progenitor or precursor cells, can differentiate into all types of blood cells, which can be characterized by specific markers. For example, cells that differentiate into lymphocytes and granulocytes can be identified by detecting the expression of certain SLAM family receptors and Integrin alpha M/CD11b, respectively.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Markers
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Markers
CD34  HMG4/HMGB3  c-Kit  CD45
CD38  IL7R alpha/CD127  CD10 
Lymphoid Lineage Markers
CD19  CD3G  CD16b  CD20 
CD2  CD4  IL7R alpha/CD127  NCAM 
CD22  CD5  CD10  NKp46/NCR1
CD34  CD16a 
Myeloid Lineage Markers
CD13  CD38  CD66b  Integrin beta 3 
CCR2 CD44  CXCR3  c-Kit 
CCR3  CD59  CD16a  LAMP1 
CD14  CD68  CD16b  Myeloperoxidase/MPO 
CD163  CD69  CD42b/GP1BA  PEAR1 
CD164  CEACAM1  Glycophorin C/GYPC  PSG1 
CD33  CEACAM3  ITGA2B/CD41  SELL/CD62L 
CD34  CEACAM5  CD11b/ITGAM/Integrin alpha M  Thyroid peroxidase
CD36  CEACAM6  CD18 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Growth Factors
Activins
Inhibin beta A/Activin A  Inhibin beta B  Inhibin beta C/INHBC
BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)
BMP10  BMP4  BMP8A  GDF-2/BMP-9 
BMP15  BMP5  BMP8B  PRCP 
BMP-2  BMP6  GDF10  smad7
BMP-3  BMP7 
Common beta Chain Receptor Family Ligands
GM-CSF  IL3  IL-5
Common gamma Chain Receptor Family Ligands
IL-15  IL21  IL-7  IL-9
IL2  IL-4 
EGF Ligands
Amphiregulin  EGFL7  LRIG1  TGF-alpha 
Betacellulin  EGFL8  Neuregulin-1  Tomoregulin-1 
EGF  Epiregulin  NRG4  TMEFF2
EGFL6  HB-EGF 
FGF Ligands
FGF1  FGF16  FGF21  FGF5 
FGF10  FGF17  FGF22  FGF6 
FGF11  FGF19  FGF23  KGF/FGF-7 
FGF12  FGF20  FGF4  FGF9
Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF)
GDF-1  GDF-2/BMP-9  GDF5  GDF-9 
GDF10  GDF3  GDF6  GDF-8
GDF15 
Hedgehogs
DHH  IHH  Sonic Hedgehog
IGF Ligands
IGF1  IGF-II  IGFL3
IL-6 Family Ligands
NNT1  Cardiotrophin 1  IL-6  LIF 
CNTF  IL11  Leptin  Oncostatin M/OSM
G-CSF  IL31 
Other Hematopoietic Stem Cell Growth Factors
M-CSF  FLT3  IL3  SCF
Platelet-Derived Growth Factors (PDGFs)
PDGFA  PDGF-B  PDGF-C  PDGF-D
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs)
PLGF/PGF  VEGFA  VEGF B  VEGF C
Wnt Ligands (Wnts)
WNT10A  WNT2B  Wnt5b  WNT8A 
WNT10B  WNT3A  Wnt6  WNT8B 
WNT16  Wnt4  Wnt7a  WNT9B
Wnt2  Wnt5a 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CD93  c-Kit  CD45 
ALDH1A1  CDCP1  Mcl-1  SLAM/CD150 
BMI1  CXCR4/CD184  EVI1/MECOM  PU.1/SPI1 
2B4/CD244  Endoglin/CD105  MYB  Thy1/CD90 
CD34  ESAM  PODXL  TRAPPC4 
CD38  GATA2  EPCR  VCAM1 
CD44  ITGA6  PROM2  ZBTB16/PLZF
CD48  VEGFR2/KDR  PTEN 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transcription Factors and Regulators
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor  HMG4/HMGB3  c-Myc/MYC  smad7 
CDX4  IKZF2  NFATC2  PU.1/SPI1 
DNMT3A  c-Jun  Nrf2/NFE2L2  STAT3 
DNMT3B  LMO2  PITX2  STAT4 
EGR1 LMO4  PRDM16  STAT6 
GATA2  c-Maf/MAF  PROX1  TAL1 
GATA3  MAFB  RUNX1  p53 
HHEX  MEF2C  SALL4  TSC22D1
HMGB1  MYB  SETD2 

Mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCs, are multipotent adult stem cells that are present in multiple tissues, including umbilical cord, bone marrow and fat tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells can self-renew by dividing and can differentiate into multiple tissues including bone, cartilage, muscle and fat cells, and connective tissue. MSCs are rare in bone marrow, representing ~1 in 10,000 nucleated cells. Although not immortal, they have the ability to expand manyfold in culture while retaining their growth and multilineage potential. MSCs are identified by the expression of many molecules including CD105 (SH2) and CD73 (SH3/4) and are negative for the hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and CD14. The properties of MSCs make these cells potentially ideal candidates for tissue engineering. It has been shown that MSCs, when transplanted systemically, are able to migrate to sites of injury in animals, suggesting that MSCs possess migratory capacity. However, the mechanisms underlying the migration of these cells remain unclear. Chemokine receptors and their ligands and adhesion molecules play an important role in tissue-specific homing of leukocytes and have also been implicated in trafficking of hematopoietic precursors into and through tissue. Several studies have reported the functional expression of various chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on human MSCs. Harnessing the migratory potential of MSCs by modulating their chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions may be a powerful way to increase their ability to correct inherited disorders of mesenchymal tissues or facilitate tissue repair in vivo.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Markers
Adipogenesis Markers
Adiponectin  CLTCL1  ADFP/PLIN2  SLC27A6 
Adiponectin Receptor 1  DLK1  PPAR gamma  CD137 
Adiponectin Receptor 2  DLK2  FATP2/SLC27A2  UCP1 
BSCL2  FABP4  SLC27A4/FATP4  ZIC1
CIDEA  Leptin  SLC27A5 
Chondrogenesis Markers
Aggrecan/ACAN  CHAD  FAM20B  MIA/Melanoma Inhibitory Activity 
Annexin VI/ANXA6  Col1a2  IBSP  OTOR/Otoraplin 
CCDC80  Collagen II/COL2A1  ITM2A  SOX5 
CD151  CRTAC1  MATN1  SOX6 
CD36  Cathepsin B  MATN3/Matrilin 3  SOX9
CD44  Epiphycan  MATN4/Matrilin 4 
Myogenic Precursor Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  M-Cadherin/CDH15  MYF5  PAX3 
Caveolin-1  FOXK2  Myogenin  PAX7
CD34  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7  NCAM 
Osteoblast Markers
Alkaline Phosphatase/PLAP  Osteocalcin  SCUBE3  SPARC
BAP31/BCAP31  IGFBP4  SP7 
Osteocyte Markers
Biglycan  FGF23  Podoplanin  SPARC
DMP1  MEPE  SOST/Sclerostin 
Osteoprogenitor Markers
Alkaline Phosphatase/PLAP  CD146/MCAM  SP7  Thyroid peroxidase
Col1a2  MEPE 
Skeletal Muscle Markers
CKM  FABP3  CD146/MCAM  SGCA 
eIF5A  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7  Myogenin  Troponin I/TNNI3
NSE/ENO2  Integrin beta 1  NCAM 
Smooth Muscle Cell Markers
ACTA2  VE-Cadherin  HEXIM1  MLNR 
CALD1/caldesmon  Calponin/CNN1  HRH2  Transgelin/TAGLN
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Factors
BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)
BMP10  BMP4  BMP8A  GDF-2/BMP-9 
BMP15  BMP5  BMP8B  PRCP 
BMP-2  BMP6  GDF10  smad7
BMP-3  BMP7 
EGF Ligands
Amphiregulin  EGFL7  LRIG1  TGF-alpha 
Betacellulin  EGFL8  Neuregulin-1  Tomoregulin-1 
EGF  Epiregulin  NRG4  TMEFF2
EGFL6  HB-EGF 
FGF Ligands
FGF1  FGF16  FGF21  FGF5 
FGF10  FGF17  FGF22  FGF6 
FGF11  FGF19  FGF23  KGF/FGF-7 
FGF12  FGF20  FGF4  FGF9
Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF)
GDF-1  GDF-2/BMP-9  GDF5  GDF-9 
GDF10  GDF3  GDF6  GDF-8
GDF15 
IGF Ligands
IGF1  IGF-II  IGFL3
Platelet-Derived Growth Factors (PDGFs)
PDGFA  PDGF-B  PDGF-C  PDGF-D
TGF-beta Family Ligands
TGF beta 1  TGF beta 2  TGF-beta 3/TGFB3
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs)
PLGF/PGF  VEGFA  VEGF B  VEGF C
Wnt Ligands (Wnts)
WNT10A  WNT2B  Wnt5b  WNT8A 
WNT10B  WNT3A  Wnt6  WNT8B 
WNT16  Wnt4  Wnt7a WNT9B
Wnt2  Wnt5a 
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  Endoglin/CD105  c-Kit  CD45 
CD13  HLA-DQA2  NCAM  Transferrin Receptor/TFRC 
BMPRIB  Integrin alpha 5/CD49e/ITGA5  NGFR  Thy1/CD90 
BMPR2  Integrin alpha V/ITGAV  CD73  VCAM1 
CD44  Integrin beta 1  PDGFRA  Vimentin
N Cadherin 
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transcription Factors
EBF3  MYOCD  PRDM16  STAT1 
ERM/ETV5  Myogenin  SMAD9  STAT3 
GATA6  NFATC2  SNAIL/SNAI1  TBX18 
HMGA2  PAX3  SOX11  p53 
c-Jun  PDX1  SOX9  ZBTB16/PLZF
MYF5 

Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) are the most primordial and uncommitted cells of the nervous system, and are believed to give rise to the vast array of more specialized cells of the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS). To be considered a “neural stem cell,” in contrast to a “progenitor” cell (i.e., cells that have already become lineage committed to give rise to only one category of neural component, e.g., glial cells versus neurons), that cell must be capable of (1) generating all neural lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) throughout the nervous system, (2) having some capacity for self-renewal, and (3) being able to give rise to cell types in addition to themselves through asymmetric cell division

Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Markers
Glial Lineage Markers
Apolipoprotein E  LINGO4  Olig2  S100B 
Carbonic anhydrase II  LRRN1  OLIG3  SLC12A3 
CD44  LRRN3  OMGP  SLC13A1 
Claudin-11  MAG  PDGFRA  SLC13A3 
CLDN12  METRNL/Meteorin‑like  PDXP  SLC1A2 
CSPG5/neuroglycan C  MIB1  PPP2CB  EAAT1/SLC1A3 
Ephrin B2  Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein  PRG2  SLC22A1 
FABP6  Musashi 1/MSI1  PROKR2  SOX10 
FGFRL1  Nestin  RNF5  SPARCL1 
GFAP  Neurofascin  Nogo Receptor/RTN4R  TROY 
Connexin 43/GJA1  NGFR  RTN4RL1  Vimentin
LINGO-1  Olig1 
Motor Neuronal Markers
Islet1/ISL1  Islet-2/ISL2  Neurogenin-2  Olig2
Neural Crest Cell Markers
MASH1/ASCL1  NEUROG1  NOTCH1  SLUG 
BMP4  Neurogenin-2  NOTCH2  SOX10 
BMP7  Neurogenin-3  PAX3  Vimentin
Integrin alpha 4/CD49d/ITGA4  NGFR  SNAIL/SNAI1 
Neural Progenitor Cell Markers
EOMES  Inhibin beta A/Activin A  PAX6  EAAT1/SLC1A3 
BLBP  Musashi 1/MSI1  ROR2  SOX1 
GFAP  NCAM  S100B  Vimentin
ID2  Nestin 
Neuronal Lineage Markers
ACE  LHX5  NELL2  Thy1/CD90 
CD166/ALCAM  Latexin  NEUROD1  TLE3 
DLG4  MAP2  NEUROD2  beta-III Tubulin/TUBB3 
GAD67  Tau  Neuregulin-1  VAMP1 
GAD65  MSX1  alpha-Synuclein  VAMP2 
GRIN1  Neurofilament Heavy  STX1A  VAMP5 
HOXA1  NEFL/Neurofilament  Synaptophysin/SYP  VAMP7 
alpha Internexin/INA  NF-M/NEFM  Tyrosine Hydroxylase  VAMP8
L1CAM  NELL1 
Neural Stem Cell Growth Factors
Activins
Inhibin beta A/Activin A  Inhibin beta B  Inhibin beta C/INHBC
BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)
BMP10  BMP4  BMP8A  GDF-2/BMP-9 
BMP15  BMP5  BMP8B  PRCP 
BMP-2  BMP6  GDF10  smad7
BMP-3  BMP7 
EGF Ligands
Amphiregulin  EGFL7  LRIG1  TGF-alpha 
Betacellulin  EGFL8  Neuregulin-1  Tomoregulin-1 
EGF  Epiregulin  NRG4  TMEFF2
EGFL6  HB-EGF 
FGF Ligands
FGF1  FGF16  FGF21  FGF5 
FGF10  FGF17  FGF22  FGF6 
FGF11  FGF19  FGF23  KGF/FGF-7 
FGF12  FGF20  FGF4  FGF9
GDNF Family Ligands
GDNF  NRTN/Neurturin  PSPN
Hedgehogs
DHH  IHH  Sonic Hedgehog
IGF Ligands
IGF1  IGF-II  IGFL3
TGF-beta Family Ligands
TGF beta 1  TGF beta 2  TGF-beta 3/TGFB3
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs)
PLGF/PGF  VEGFA  VEGF B  VEGF C
Wnt Ligands (Wnts)
WNT10A  WNT2B  Wnt5b  WNT8A 
WNT10B  WNT3A  Wnt6  WNT8B 
WNT16  Wnt4  Wnt7a  WNT9B
Wnt2  Wnt5a 
Neural Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  GATA2  NOTCH1  ROR2 
MASH1/ASCL1  GFAP  NOTCH2  RUNX1 
BMI1  HOXB1  NR2F1  SFRP2 
Calcitonin receptor  ID2  GCNF/NR6A1  SLAIN1 
CDCP1  METRNL/Meteorin‑like  OTX2  BRG1 
N Cadherin  Musashi 1/MSI1  PAX3  SOX1 
beta-Catenin  MSI2  PAX6  SOX11 
CXCR4/CD184  MSX1  PDGFRA  SOX21 
FABP3  Nestin  PRKCZ / PKC zeta  SOX9 
BLBP  NEUROD1  PROKR2  Vimentin 
SSEA1  Nrf2/NFE2L2  PROM2  ZIC1
Frizzled-9/FZD9  Noggin/NOG 
Neural Stem Cell Transcription Factors
MASH1/ASCL1  MCM2  Olig2  SOX3 
ATF2  MEF2C  OLIG3  SOX5 
CSHL1  MSX1  PAX3  SOX6 
EMX2  NEUROD1  PAX6  SOX9 
FOSB  NEUROD2  PRDM16  STAT3 
GLI1  NEUROG1  PROX1  TCF12 
GLI2  Neurogenin-2  smad7  p53 
HOXB1  Nkx2.2  BRG1  ZIC1 
c-Jun  nkx6.1  SNAIL/SNAI1  ZIC3
KLF4  Olig1  SOX1 

Stem cells reside within distinct microenvironments known as stem cell niches. Within the niche, stem cells may be in contact with their daughter cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and stromal cells. Adhesion molecules, such as Cadherins and Integrins, mediate stem cell contacts with other cells and ECM proteins, respectively. E-Cadherin-based cell adhesion is important for embryonic stem cell self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency. In the developing mammalian embryonic brain, the loss of Integrin molecules and subsequent neural stem cell detachment from the ECM results in apoptosis. Integrins are also thought to regulate hematopoietic stem cell homing and retention in the bone marrow niche. In addition, adhesion molecules may influence asymmetric stem cell division by interacting with microtubules of the mitotic spindle and directing the plane of cell division. The daughter cell that maintains contact with the niche receives self-renewal signals, while the sister cell inherits differentiation factors and lacks potency signals from the niche. Pathologically, the loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules in cancer stem cells is thought to contribute to an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and an invasive, migratory phenotype.

Cadherin Superfamily
E-Cadherin  CDH20  DSC1  PCDH12/Protocadherin 12 
CDH10  CDH3/P cadherin  Desmocollin 2/DSC2  PCDH15 
Cadherin-11  R-Cadherin/CDH4  Desmoglein 1/DSG1  PCDH17/Protocadherin 17 
CDH12  VE-Cadherin  Desmoglein-2  PCDH18/Protocadherin 18 
H Cadherin  K Cadherin/CDH6  DSG3/Desmoglein 3  PCDH8 
M-Cadherin/CDH15  CDH7  DSG4/Desmoglein 4  PCDHA1 
Cadherin 17/CDH17  Cadherin 8  PCDH1  PCDHGC3
N Cadherin  CDHR5  PCDH10 
Claudins
Claudin-1  CLDN16  CLDN22  Claudin 5 
Claudin 10  CLDN17  CLDN23  CLDN6 
Claudin-11  Claudin18  CLDN25  Claudin 7 
CLDN12  Claudin-19  Claudin-3  CLDN8 
Claudin 14/CLDN14  Claudin 2  Claudin-4/CLDN4  CLDN9
Claudin 15  CLDN20 
Contactins
Contactin-1  Contactin 3  CNTN4  CNTN5
TAG1/Contactin 2 
Immunoglobulin Superfamily CAMs
CD166/ALCAM  ASAM  ISLR2  MXRA8 
BCAM  Contactin-1  ICAP-1  NCAM 
BVES  TAG1/Contactin 2  JAM-2/JAM-B  NCAM2 
CADM1  Contactin 3  JAM-C  Nectin-2 
CADM2  CNTN4  JAML  NEGR1 
CADM3  CNTN5  KIRREL  Neurofascin 
CADM4  DDX11  KIRREL2  Ninjurin-1 
CD160  DSCAM  KIRREL3  Ninjurin2 
CD47  ESAM  L1CAM  Nephrin 
CDO  JAM-A/Junctional Adhesion Molecule A  LAMP3/CD208  Podocin/NPHS2 
CEACAM1  HEPACAM  LRFN1  NPTN 
CEACAM16  ICAM-1  LRFN2  OPCML 
CEACAM18  ICAM-2  LRFN3  PEAR1 
CEACAM19  CD50  LRFN4  CD31 
CEACAM20  ICAM4  LRFN5  SIRP alpha 
CEACAM21  ICAM5  LSAMP  TROP2 
CEACAM3  IGDCC3  MADCAM1  Thrombospondin-1/TSP1 
CEACAM4  IGSF11  CD146/MCAM  TMEM204 
CEACAM5  IGSF21  MDGA1  TMIGD2 
CEACAM6  IGSF3  MDGA2  UBE2S 
CEACAM7  IGSF5  MFGE8  VCAM1
CD66b  ISRL/-2 
Integrins
ITGA1/Integrin alpha 1  Integrin alpha 5/CD49e/ITGA5  LFA-1  Integrin beta 4 
ITGA10/Integrin alpha 10  ITGA6  CD11b/ITGAM/Integrin alpha M  Integrin beta 5/ITGB5 
ITGA11/Integrin alpha 11  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7  Integrin alpha V/ITGAV  Integrin beta 6/ITGB6 
Integrin alpha 2  Integrin alpha 8/ITGA8  CD11c/ITGAX  Integrin beta 7/ITGB7 
ITGA2B/CD41  Integrin alpha 9/ITGA9  Integrin beta 1  Integrin beta 8/ITGB8 
Integrin alpha 3  CD11d/ITGAD  CD18  ITGBL1
Integrin alpha 4/CD49d/ITGA4  CD103  Integrin beta 3 
Lectins
C-type Lectin Family
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor  CLEC2A  ficolin 1/FCN1  MGL2 
Langerin/CD207  CLEC2D  Ficolin-2  MRC1/CD206 
DC-SIGN  Tetranectin  Ficolin-3  MRC2 
SIGNR1  CLEC4A  FREM1  LOX-1 
CD209G  CLEC4D  KLRB1  PLA2R1 
CD302  CLEC4F  NKG2A  REG1A 
CD72  CLEC4G/LSECtin  KLRC2  REG1B 
CD93  CD299  KLRC3  REG2 
CHODL  CLEC5A  CD94/KLRD1  Reg3A 
CLEC10A  Dectin-2  NKp80/KLRF1  REG3B 
SCGF/CLEC11A  Dectin-1  NKG2D  REG3D 
CLEC12A  COLEC11  Latexin  REG3G 
CLEC14A  COLEC12  DEC-205  REG4 
CLEC-1  DLEC1  Mannan Binding Lectin/MBL2  Surfactant protein D/SFTPD
CLEC-2  CD23 
Galectins
Galectin-1  LGALS3BP  Galectin 7  Galectin 9
Galectin-2/LGALS2  Galectin-4/LGALS4 Galectin 8/LGALS8 
Ig-type Lectins
CD22  SIGLEC1  SIGLEC14  SIGLEC7 
CD33  SIGLEC10  SIGLEC5  SIGLEC8 
CD83  SIGLEC11  SIGLEC6  SIGLEC9
MAG 
Other Lectins
ITLN1/Intelectin-1  LMAN1L
Selectins
E-Selectin  SELL/CD62L  P-Selectin

The individual properties of hematopoietic stem cells, including self-renewal, maintenance of pluripotency, and asymmetric cell division, must depend at some level on the functions of specific transcription factors. Cellular programs regarding proliferation, potency, and cell fate determination can be mediated by signal transduction events that modulate transcription factor (TF) expression and/or activation. TFs promote the diferentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst into stem or progenitor cells of all three vertebrate germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. In addition, the expression of specifc TFs is sufcient to reprogram somatic cells back to a pluripotent state. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, like ES cells, give rise to adult stem cells such as neural and epithelial stem cells. Adult stem cells function to replenish cells of the tissue in which they are found.

Cancer Stem Cell Transcription Factors
Androgen receptor  FOXM1  MITF  SETD2 
MASH1/ASCL1  GATA2  c-Myc/MYC  SIRT2 
ASCL2  GLI1  MYCL  SNAIL/SNAI1 
ATF1  GLI2  NANOG  SOX11 
ATF2  HMGA2  p100/p52  SOX9 
ATF-4  HMGB1  Nkx3.1  STAT3 
CDX2  HNF1A  Nonstructural protein 1/NS1  TAL1 
CDX4  HSF1  ONECUT1  TAZ 
Crtc1  ID1  PAX3  TBX3 
TORC2  ID2  PITX2  AP2 Gamma/TFAP2C 
beta-Catenin  c-Jun  Oct-1/POU2F1  p53 
CHOP/DDIT3  JunD/Jun-D  Oct4  p63 
DLX5  KLF10  PRDM1  TRIM32 
DNMT1  KLF17  PRDM14  TRPS1 
E2F1  KLF4  PROX1  TSC22D1 
EGR1  LMO2  PTF1A  UIMC1 
HIF-2-alpha  c-Maf/MAF  RUNX1  WT1 
ER alpha  MCM2  RUNX3  ZEB1 
ER beta  MEF2C  SALL4  Rex-1/ZFP42
FOSB 
Epithelial Stem Cell Transcription Factors
ASCL2  c-Maf/MAF  Nrf2/NFE2L2  SMAD9 
CDX2  MITF  Nkx3.1  SNAIL/SNAI1 
DNMT1  MSX1  Nonstructural protein 1/NS1  SOX9 
FOXM1  MSX2  PAX2  STAT3 
GATA6  MYB  PAX3  SUZ12 
HNF1A  c-Myc/MYC  RUNX1  p53 
HNF4A  Neurogenin-3  RUNX3  p63 
HR  NFAT2/NFATC1  smad7  ZBTB17
IRF6 
Hemangioblast Transcription Factors
LMO2  LMO4  RUNX1  TAL1
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transcription Factors and Regulators
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor  HMG4/HMGB3  c-Myc/MYC  smad7 
CDX4  IKZF2  NFATC2  PU.1/SPI1 
DNMT3A  c-Jun  Nrf2/NFE2L2  STAT3 
DNMT3B  LMO2  PITX2  STAT4 
EGR1  LMO4  PRDM16  STAT6 
GATA2 c-Maf/MAF  PROX1  TAL1 
GATA3  MAFB  RUNX1  p53 
HHEX  MEF2C SALL4  TSC22D1
HMGB1  MYB  SETD2 
Hepatic and Pancreatic Progenitor Cell Transcription Factors
FOXA1  ONECUT2  PDX1  RFX6 
FOXA2  PAX4  PROX1  SOX9 
HNF1B  PAX6  PTF1A  TBX3
Neurogenin-3 
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transcription Factors
EBF3  MYOCD  PRDM16  STAT1 
ERM/ETV5  Myogenin  SMAD9  STAT3 
GATA6  NFATC2  SNAIL/SNAI1  TBX18 
HMGA2  PAX3  SOX11  p53 
c-Jun  PDX1  SOX9  ZBTB16/PLZF
MYF5
Neural Stem Cell Transcription Factors
MASH1/ASCL1  MCM2  Olig2  SOX3 
ATF2  MEF2C  OLIG3  SOX5 
CSHL1  MSX1  PAX3 SOX6 
EMX2  NEUROD1  PAX6  SOX9 
FOSB  NEUROD2  PRDM16  STAT3 
GLI1  NEUROG1  PROX1  TCF12 
GLI2  Neurogenin-2  smad7  p53 
HOXB1  Nkx2.2  BRG1  ZIC1 
c-Jun  nkx6.1  SNAIL/SNAI1  ZIC3
KLF4  Olig1  SOX1 
Pluripotent Stem Cell Transcription Factors
EOMES  MEF2C  SALL1  SUZ12 
FOXO1  MIXL1  SALL4  TBX18 
GATA2  MTF2  SMAD9  TBX6 
GATA3  c-Myc/MYC SNAIL/SNAI1  THAP11 
GBX2  NANOG  SOX1  p53 
GSC2  p100/p52  SOX15  UTF1 
c-Jun  OTX2  SOX17  WDR5 
KLF2  PAX2  SOX18  WT1 
KLF4  PAX6  SOX3  Rex-1/ZFP42 
KLF5  Oct4  SOX7  ZNF281 
c-Maf/MAF  PRDM14  STAT3  ZSCAN10
MAX 

Detecting the expression of cell type-specific markers is a critical tool for defining starting stem cell populations and confirming differentiation status. Using techniques such as immunocytochemistry (ICC) and flow cytometry, these important methodological steps can reduce experimental variability, improve data consistency, and provide valuable insight that may prevent weeks of wasted effort and reagents.

Adipose-derived Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  Endoglin/CD105  Integrin beta 1  SPARC 
CD13  Integrin alpha 4/CD49d/ITGA4  CD146/MCAM  Thy1/CD90 
CD44  Integrin alpha 5/CD49e/ITGA5  Pumilio 2/PUM2  VCAM1
CD9 
Cancer Stem Cell Markers
Bladder Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  CD44  CD47  CEACAM6
Breast Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  IL8Ra/CXCR1/CD181  Connexin 43/GJA1  ITGA6 
BMI1  CXCR4/CD184  GLI1  PON1 
CD24  DLL4  GLI2  CD133/PROM1 
CD44  Her2/ERBB2  IL-6R  PTEN
Colon Cancer Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  CD44  GLI1  Musashi 1/MSI1 
ALDH1A1  DPP4/CD26  LGR5  CD133/PROM1
Gastric Cancer Stem Cell Markers
CD44  DLL4  LGR5
Glioma/Medulloblastoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CXCR4/CD184  L1CAM  Nestin 
ALDH1A1  HIF-2-alpha  c-Maf/MAF  Podoplanin 
BMI1  SSEA1  Musashi 1/MSI1  CD133/PROM1 
CD44  IL-6R  c-Myc/MYC  A20/TNFAIP3
Fractalkine  ITGA6 
Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  BMI1  LGR5  c-MET
ALDH1A1  CD44 
Leukemia Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BMI1  CD44  CLEC12A  TIM-3 
CD34  CD47  GLI1  c-Kit 
CD38  CD96  GLI2  MSI2
Liver Cancer Stem Cell Markers
Alpha-fetoprotein  Merlin/NF2  CD45  Thy1/CD90
CD13 
Lung Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  ALDH1A1  c-Kit  Thy1/CD90
Melanoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ABCB5  CD166/ALCAM  Nestin  CD133/PROM1
BCRP/ABCG2  CD20  NGFR 
Myeloma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ABCB5  CD27  CD20  Syndecan-1/CD138
CD19  CD38 
Osteosarcoma Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CD44  Endoglin/CD105  Nestin
Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers
AMACR  CD44  Endoglin/CD105  c-Kit
Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cell Markers
ALDH1A1  CD24  CXCR4/CD184  PON1
BMI1  CD44 
Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  AMACR  CD151  c-Maf/MAF 
CD166/ALCAM  BMI1  CD44  c-Myc/MYC
ALDH1A1 
Cardiac Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  ETV2  Islet1/ISL1 I NPPA 
ACTA2  FABP3  ntegrin beta 1  SGCA 
BMP4  SSEA1  c-Kit  Transgelin/TAGLN 
CALD1/caldesmon  GATA6  SCF  TBX18 
Caspase-3  GJA4  LRG1  TBX5 
CD34  GJA5/Connexin 40  MEF2C  Cripto 
VE-Cadherin  HCN4  MLNR  TNNT2 
Calponin/CNN1  HEXIM1  NKX2.5  WT1
Desmin  HRH2 
Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Markers
Ectodermal Lineage Markers
BMP-2  GDF3  MSX2  SLUG 
BMP4  GSC2  NCLN  SOX1 
N Cadherin  HAND1  Nestin  TBX6 
CFC1  Inhibin beta A/Activin A  NODAL  TGF beta 1 
Chordin  Inhibin beta B  Noggin/NOG  TGF beta 2 
EOMES  Inhibin beta C/INHBC  OTX2  p63 
FABP4  IRF6  PAX2  beta-III Tubulin/TUBB3 
FGF5  MIXL1  PAX6  WNT3A 
GBX2  MSX1  SNAIL/SNAI1  WNT8A
GDF-1 
Endodermal Lineage Markers
Alpha-fetoprotein  GATA6  Integrin beta 1  PTF1A 
AKR1A1  GCG/Glucagon  MIXL1  PTP4A2 
CLDN6  GDF-1  NEUROD1  RFX6 
beta-Catenin  GDF3  Neurogenin-3  SALL4 
CXCR4/CD184  GSC2  Nkx2.2  SCTR/Secretin R 
EOMES  HNF1B  nkx6.1  SLC2A2 
L-FABP  HNF4A  PAX4  SOX17 
FABP2  Insulin  PAX6  SOX7 
GPCR Islet1/ISL1  PDX1  Somatostatin
GPR40/FFAR1  Islet-2/ISL2  PROX1
Mesodermal Lineage Markers
ACE  FABP4  c-Kit  RUNX1 
CD166/ALCAM  FGF5  LMO2  SNAIL/SNAI1 
CD13  GDF-1  LMO4  SLUG 
BMP-2  GDF3  MIXL1  TAL1 
BMP4  GSC2  NCAM  TBX6 
BMPRIB  HAND1  NCLN  TIE2 
BMPR2  HLA-DQA2  NGFR  Transferrin Receptor/TFRC 
CD34  Inhibin beta A/Activin A  NODAL  TGF beta 1 
CD44  Inhibin beta B  CD73  TGF beta 2 
E-Cadherin  Inhibin beta C/INHBC  PDGFRA  Thy1/CD90 
N Cadherin  Integrin alpha 5/CD49e/ITGA5  CD31  VCAM1 
VE-Cadherin  Integrin alpha V/ITGAV  PODXL  Vimentin 
CFC1  Integrin beta 1  CD133/PROM1  WNT3A 
Endoglin/CD105  VEGFR2/KDR  CD45  WNT8A
EOMES 
Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  ESRRB  LIN28A  TBX3 
ALK4/ACVR1B  FBX15  c-Maf/MAF  TBX5 
ACVR2B  FGF4  c-Myc/MYC  Cripto 
Alkaline Phosphatase/ALPL  FGF5  NANOG  TERT 
CBX2  GBX2  GCNF/NR6A1  TEX19 
CD9  GDF3  PODXL  THAP11 
E-Cadherin  ITGA6  Oct4  CD30/TNFRSF8 
CDX2  Integrin beta 1  STAT3  5T4/TPBG 
CHD1  c-Kit  SUZ12  UTF1 
DNMT3B  KLF4  TROP2  Rex-1/ZFP42 
DPPA4  KLF5  TBX2  ZIC3
DPPA5  L1TD1 
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  CD93  c-Kit  CD45 
ALDH1A1 CDCP1  Mcl-1  SLAM/CD150 
BMI1  CXCR4/CD184  EVI1/MECOM  PU.1/SPI1 
2B4/CD244  Endoglin/CD105  MYB  Thy1/CD90 
CD34  ESAM  PODXL  TRAPPC4 
CD38  GATA2  EPCR  VCAM1 
CD44  ITGA6  PROM2  ZBTB16/PLZF
CD48  VEGFR2/KDR  PTEN 
Intestinal Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  BMPR2  LGR5  SOX9 
ASCL2  CD24  Musashi 1/MSI1  TERT
BMI1  DCLK1 
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Markers
Adipogenesis Markers
Adiponectin  CLTCL1  ADFP/PLIN2  SLC27A6 
Adiponectin Receptor 1  DLK1  PPAR gamma  CD137 
Adiponectin Receptor 2  DLK2  FATP2/SLC27A2  UCP1 
BSCL2  FABP4  SLC27A4/FATP4  ZIC1
CIDEA  Leptin  SLC27A5 
Chondrogenesis Markers
Aggrecan/ACAN  CHAD  FAM20B  MIA/Melanoma Inhibitory Activity 
Annexin VI/ANXA6  Col1a2  IBSP  OTOR/Otoraplin 
CCDC80  Collagen II/COL2A1  ITM2A  SOX5 
CD151  CRTAC1  MATN1  SOX6 
CD36  Cathepsin B  MATN3/Matrilin 3  SOX9
CD44  Epiphycan  MATN4/Matrilin 4 
Myogenic Precursor Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  M-Cadherin/CDH15  MYF5  PAX3 
Caveolin-1  FOXK2  Myogenin  PAX7
CD34  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7  NCAM 
Osteoblast Markers
Alkaline Phosphatase/PLAP  Osteocalcin  SCUBE3  SPARC
BAP31/BCAP31  IGFBP4  SP7 
Osteocyte Markers
Biglycan  FGF23  Podoplanin  SPARC
DMP1  MEPE  SOST/Sclerostin 
Osteoprogenitor Markers
Alkaline Phosphatase/PLAP  CD146/MCAM  SP7  Thyroid peroxidase
Col1a2  MEPE 
Skeletal Muscle Markers
CKM  FABP3  CD146/MCAM  SGCA 
eIF5A  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7  Myogenin  Troponin I/TNNI3
NSE/ENO2  Integrin beta 1  NCAM 
Smooth Muscle Cell Markers
ACTA2  VE-Cadherin  HEXIM1  MLNR 
CALD1/caldesmon  Calponin/CNN1  HRH2  Transgelin/TAGLN
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Markers
CD166/ALCAM  Endoglin/CD105  c-Kit  CD45 
CD13  HLA-DQA2  NCAM  Transferrin Receptor/TFRC 
BMPRIB  Integrin alpha 5/CD49e/ITGA5  NGFR  Thy1/CD90 
BMPR2  Integrin alpha V/ITGAV  CD73  VCAM1 
CD44  Integrin beta 1  PDGFRA  Vimentin
N Cadherin 
Muscle Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  M-Cadherin/CDH15  MYF5  PAX3 
Caveolin-1  FOXK2  Myogenin  PAX7
CD34  Integrin alpha 7/ITGA7 
Neural Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  GATA2  NOTCH1  ROR2 
MASH1/ASCL1  GFAP  NOTCH2  RUNX1 
BMI1  HOXB1  NR2F1  SFRP2 
Calcitonin receptor  ID2  GCNF/NR6A1  SLAIN1 
CDCP1  METRNL/Meteorin‑like  OTX2  BRG1 
N Cadherin  Musashi 1/MSI1  PAX3  SOX1 
beta-Catenin  MSI2  PAX6  SOX11 
CXCR4/CD184  MSX1  PDGFRA  SOX21 
FABP3  Nestin  PRKCZ / PKC zeta  SOX9 
BLBP  NEUROD1  PROKR2  Vimentin 
SSEA1  Nrf2/NFE2L2  PROM2  ZIC1
Frizzled-9/FZD9  Noggin/NOG 
Retinal Stem Cell Markers
BCRP/ABCG2  BLBP  Neurogenin-2  PAX6 
CDH3/P cadherin  Nestin  NOTCH1  Sonic Hedgehog
CORD2 
Skin Stem Cell Markers
CD200  Frizzled 2  Nestin  p63 
CD34  ITGA6  RNF5  YAP1
FSTL3  Integrin beta 1  TNC 
Trophoblast Stem Cell Markers
CDX2  EOMES  FGF4  TROP2
Chorionic Gonadotropin/CGA  ESRRB 

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