Affinity binding ligands can aid in the rapid development or streamlined production of microsphere reagents. They also provide the opportunity for optimal orientation of the ligand, as with end-point immobilization of biotinylated oligonucleotides to streptavidin-coated microspheres, or the Fc-specific immobilization of antibodies via Protein A or G.
Affinity ligands are also used extensively in isolation and purifications. Streptavidin-coated microspheres are often used to capture biotinylated PCR amplicons. Protein A and Protein G microspheres are utilized for immunoprecipitation and the purification of antibodies and Fc-tagged fusion proteins. Lectin-coated spheres (e.g. WGA, ConA) are used to bind glycoproteins, glycolipids and other glycan-presenting targets.