Cell Markers

Cell markers are biochemical or genetic characteristics that distinguish and discriminate between different cell types. Although most are molecules expressed on the plasma membrane, cell markers are not limited to surface antigens and can include other components such as transcription factors. The unique composition and combination of cell markers allows researchers to accurately delineate the various cell types within a population. As the fields of regenerative medicine and molecular diagnostics continue to expand, the need to discover and describe novel cell-specific markers will become even more urgent.

GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibody reagents to facilitate your research, featuring antibodies against unique cell markers for detection of the various cell types highlighted below.

Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells (astroglia) with great heterogeneity in both morphology and activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes exhibit various functions including modulating neurotransmitter clearance, maintaining ion and nutrient homeostasis, and regulating the number of synapses. They also provide biochemical support of endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier, and play a crucial role in post-injury repair in the CNS.

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Glutamine synthetase antibody (GTX109121)

GFAP antibody (GTX108711)

Aquaporin 4 antibody (GTX133151)

The main functions of oligodendrocytes are to provide metabolic support and neuronal axon myelination in the central nervous system (CNS), which is analogous to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Myelin sheaths generated by oligodendrocytes are able to facilitate fast neuronal action potential conduction along the axon. Loss of myelin sheaths due to oligodendrocyte dysfunction can lead to subsequent neuron degeneration and cause neuronal disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

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Myelin Basic Protein antibody (GTX133108)

Myelin basic Protein antibody (GTX634292)

MOG antibody [C2C3], C-term (GTX106283)

Endothelial cells form the interior lining (endothelium) of all lymphatic and blood vessels. The most fundamental functions of endothelium are to maintain a vessel wall barrier facilitating exchange of molecules between the vasculature and tissues and to regulate vascular homeostasis. Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) share features such as flat morphology, apico-basal polarity and several common endothelial cell-specific proteins. As noted above, the primary roles of VECs include the establishment and maintenance of a selective barrier and regulation of blood flow. This entails all aspects of vascular biology in the context of vessel formation and tone, coagulation/fibrinolysis, inflammation, and other pathological processes. VECs interact with platelets and regulate fibrin formation to maintain vascular hemostasis. VECs also modulate immune responses through expression of the T-cell activation inhibitor PD-L1, secretion of nitric oxide, and control of the expression of immune recruiting receptors like ICAM or VCAM. Dysfunction of the endothelium can lead to various vascular diseases and promote the development of chronic conditions that include atherosclerosis. GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibody reagents to study endothelial cells, with an emphasis on VECs. Please see the highlighted antibodies below.

Endothelial Cell Markers
Citation Support KOKD Validation

CD31 antibody

CD146 antibody

VE-cadherin antibody

eNOS (phospho Ser1177) antibody (GTX129058)

Cardiomyocytes make up the striated heart muscle. Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes have a branching morphology.


Cardiomyocyte (Cardiac Muscle Cell) Markers
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Cardiac Troponin T antibody (GTX28295)

Cardiac Troponin I antibody (GTX109331)

Nkx2.5 antibody

MYH6 antibody

Skeletal muscle consists of elongated multinuclear cells (myofibers) bundled together to form striated muscle fibers.


Skeletal Muscle Cell Markers
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epsilon Sarcoglycan / SGCE antibody [N1C1]

Creatine kinase (muscle) antibody (GTX108969)

Troponin T fast skeletal antibody (GTX130922)

gamma Sarcoglycan antibody (GTX117176)

Smooth Muscle Cell Markers
Citation Support KOKD Validation

alpha Smooth Muscle Actin antibody


alpha Smooth Muscle Actin antibody


Transgelin antibody


HEXIM1 antibody

Epidermal cells form the epidermis, the outermost of the three layers that together constitute the skin. Histologically, the epidermis is composed primarily of four tightly adherent layers of squamous epithelium organized into distinct vertical zones by stages of differentiation. From innermost to outermost, the layers are: stratum basale (basal cell layer), stratum spinosum (spinous layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), and stratum corneum (cornified layer). The epidermis consists largely of keratinocytes (>90%) but also contains melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells, and inflammatory cells.
GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibody reagents to study epidermal cells. Please see the highlighted antibodies below.

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CD1a antibody

Filaggrin antibody

Cytokeratin 5 antibody

Cytokeratin 20 antibody

Fibroblasts, the most common cells in animal connective tissue, are spindle-shaped cells that produce components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagens and glycosaminoglycans. They respond to tissue damage and are key players in wound healing. Being involved in both immune and inflammatory processes, fibroblasts can become dysfunctional in various chronic fibrotic disorders.

Fibroblast Markers
Citation Support KOKD Validation

Vimentin antibody

Integrin beta 1 / CD29 antibody (GTX128839)


Fibronectin antibody

alpha Smooth Muscle Actin antibody (GTX629702)

Brown Adipocyte Beige Adipocyte White Adipocyte
Brown Adipocyte Beige Adipocyte White Adipocyte
UCP1 UCP1-positive UCP1-positive(Upon stimulation) UCP1-negative
Mitochondria Density High Medium Low
Lipid Droplets Types Numerous Small Several Medium One Large
Function Thermogenic Thermogenic Energy Storage

Adipose tissues are the major energy storage sites in the body which plays important regulatory roles in thermodynamics and metabolism. There are several types of adipocytes with distinct morphology and physiological functions. White adipocytes hold one single large lipid droplet which stores triglycerides as the energy source. In contrast, brown adipocytes are responsible for heat production (thermogenesis). Brown adipocytes contain numerous small lipid droplets and many mitochondria with enriched expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). Beige adipocytes are clusters of UCP1-expressing adipocytes with thermogenic capacity reside in white adipose tissues upon stimulation. GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibody reagents, featuring antibodies for pre-adipocytes and different types of differentiated adipocytes. Please see the highlighted antibodies below.

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Pre-Adipocyte Marker

PDGF Receptor alpha antibody (GTX133588)

Differentiated Adipocyte Marker

Fatty Acid Synthase antibody (GTX109833)


Brown Adipocyte Marker

UCP1 antibody

White Adipocyte Marker

Leptin antibody



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