Sino Biological COVID-19

Research Solutions for Coronavirus – Sino Biological

SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Detection Kits, Antibodies and Proteins

The newly identified coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV), has led to pneumonia (COVID-19) that sickened over 240,000 people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus Genus, which also includes SARS CoV (2003) and MERS CoV (2012). Same as all other coronaviruses, the genome of SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) encodes the spike protein, the envelope protein, the membrane protein, and the nucleocapsid protein.
The spike protein (S-protein) mediates receptor binding and membrane fusion. Spike protein contains two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing and binding with the cell surface receptor. S2 subunit is the “stem” of the structure, which contains other basic elements needed for the membrane fusion. The spike protein is the common target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccines. It’s been reported that SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) (ref.) can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. Indeed, the recombinant Spike protein can bind with recombinant ACE2 protein.
The Nucleocapsid Protein (N-protein) is the most abundant protein in coronavirus. The N-protein is a highly immunogenic phosphoprotein, and it is normally very conserved. The N protein of coronavirus is often used as a marker in diagnostic assays.
To aid the efforts of developing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies against this virus, Sino Biological Inc. has developed a panel of research reagents for SARS-CoV-2, including recombinant antigens (the N protein, S protein, the S1 and S2 subunits of the S protein, and the RBD domain of the S proteins), antibodies, antigen detection kits and genes.

Neutralization Efficacy Assay aganist SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Some of the above mutations may have allowed the virus to escape from neutralizing antibodies. To characterize these variants, a new panel of monoclonal antibodies have been launched this month. These antibodies demonstrate differential neutralizing activities against different variants validated by Competitive ELISA Assay. Notably, the B.1.351 and P.1 variants seem to be immune to a subset of the antibodies.

Neutralizing Antibodies WT RBD Recombinant RBD
Recombinant S1
B.1.1.7 B.1.351 P.1 B.1.617 B.1.617 B.1.429
40150-D001 ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
40150-D002 ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++
40591-MM43 ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
40592-MM57 + + + + +
40592-R001 +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
40592-R118 +++ +++ + + +
40592-R117 +++ +++ +++ +++ +++

+: Neutralizing Capacity

The Aforementioned Recombinant RBD :
WT: 40592-V08B
B.1.1.7 | U.K. Variant: 40592-V08H82 (N501Y)
B.1.351 | South Africa Variant: 40592-V08H85 (K417N, E484K, N501Y)
P.1 | Brazil Variant: 40592-V08H86 (K417T, E484K, N501Y)
B.1.617 | India Variant: 40592-V08H88 (L452R, E484Q)

The Aforementioned Recombinant S1 :
B.1.617 | India Variant: 40591-V08H19 (E154K, E484Q, L452R, D614G, P681R)
B.1.429 | California Variant: 40591-V08H17 (W152C, L452R, D614G)

SARS-CoV-2 Antigens

All coronaviruses share very similar structures.

The viral genome encodes several proteins of unique functions, S protein

N protein

HE protein

papain-like proteases

M protein.

The two antigens of main pharmaceutical interest are the S (spike) protein and the N protein.

  • The N (nucleocapsid) protein is often conserved, which can be used as a diagnostic marker.
  • The Spike protein is mainly responsible for receptor binding, and is a common target for vaccines and antibodies. The size of the abundantly N-glycosylated S protein varies greatly between CoV species

The spike protein is particularly important as its interaction with the host cell receptor is the pivotal step during the infection. Different viruses may utilize different surface receptor for binding. The HCOV- NL63, SARS-COV, and the new SARS-COV-2 viruses all use the ACE2 receptor, while the MERS-COV virus selectively binds with the DPP4 receptor. The HCOV-229E virus targets APN receptor. The rest two common coronavirus, HKU1 and OC43 bind with O-ac Sia.

Spike Protein

The spike protein is a large type I transmembrane protein containing two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion. The S protein plays a key role in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity.

The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell

Nucleocapsid Protein

The N protein constitutes the only protein present in the nucleocapsid. It is composed of two separate domains, an N-terminal and a C-terminal domains both capable of binding viral RNA in vitro

N protein is also heavily phosphorylated and binds to the viral genome

N protein also binds nsp3, a key component of replicase-transcriptase complex , and the M protein and subsequently packages the encapsidated genome into viral particles.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane receptor expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells.

The interaction between the viral spike protein and the ACE2 receptor is mediated by the RBD domain of the spike protein, and is believed to be the pivotal event in the membrane fusion process.

It’s been shown that SARS-COV-2 also uses ACE2 as the receptor for host cell entry. This finding suggests that blocking the interaction between the S protein and ACE2 is a valid approach to prevent or treat coronavirus infection.

Expression Systems – SARS-CoV-2

Mammalian cells CHO, HEK293

  • Protein folding
  • Post-translational modification
  • Flexible and rapid production of proteins.
  • Lower production yield than bacterial systems
  • Higher cost than bacterial systems
  • Complex culture media

Insect cells expression systems

  • Robust
  • Simple culture media
  • High expression levels
  • Able to perform a variety of post-translational modifications similar to mammalian cells

Bacterial Systems

  • High protein expression yield
  • Most economical
  • No disulfite bonds
  • Additional modifications are required post production

Tags

IgG-Fc-tag (mFc = mouse IgG – rFc = rabbit IgG)

  • allows for rapid and simple detection of protein expression by ELISA
  • allows for simple affinity purification of the Fc-tagged protein by protein A, protein G, and protein L affinity purification resins.
  • increases protein expression yield.

His Tag

  • 6xHis-tag is one of the simplest and most widely used purification tags
  • The his-tag has a high affinity for metal ions  Ni2+or Co2+immobilized on beads or a resin for such as IMAC columns
N SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleocapsid-His Protein 40588-V08B Expressed in Insect cell
S1 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1-His Protein 40591-V08B Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
S1 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1-His Protein 40591-V08B1 Expressed in Insect cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-mFc Protein 40592-V05H Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-Fc Protein 40592-V02H Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-rFc Protein 40592-V31H Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-His Protein, Biotinylated 40592-V08B-B Expressed in Insect cell
S2 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S2-mFc Protein 40592-V05H Expressed in HEK293 cell
S1+S2 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1+S2 ECD-His Protein 40589-V08B1 Expressed in Insect cell, bind with ACE2
S1 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1-mFc Protein 40591-V05H1 Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
S1 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1-Fc Protein 40591-V02H Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-His Protein 40592-V08B Expressed in Insect cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-His Protein 40592-V08H Expressed in HEK293 cell, bind with ACE2
RBD SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD-His Protein,Biotinylated 40592-V08H-B Expressed in HEK293 cell
S2 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S2 ECD-His Protein 40590-V08B Expressed in Insect cell
Plpro SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Plpro-His protein 40593-V07E Expressed in E.coli cell

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Mutant Proteins

Several new variants of SARS-CoV-2 virus have emerged in recent months. The U.K. variant B.1.1.7, the Brazil variant P.1, the South Africa variant B.1.351, and the most recent Indian variant B.1.617 are particular concerning because of their high prevalence. A subset of the mutations identified in the RBD domain of the spike protein occurs in more than one strain. These convergent mutations are of high interest because they may be the cause of the increased transmissibility. Sino Biological has launched RBD and Spike proteins of these variants.

The mutations in these strains also occur in the nucleocapsid protein, which is commonly used as the biomarker in rapid antigen tests. It’s critical to assess whether the current commercial antigen tests can detect the mutated N proteins with the same sensitivity and specificity as their WT counterpart.

By monitoring the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, WHO has published these Variants of Concern (VOCs) to accelerate the globe to make quick response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Characteristics of VOCs can be:
• Increase in transmissibility or detrimental change in COVID-19 epidemiology
• Increase in virulence or change in clinical disease presentation
• Decrease in effectiveness of public health and social measures or available diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics

WHO-Currently designated Variants of Concern

WHO label lineages Earliest documented samples
Alpha B.1.1.7 United Kingdom, Sep-2020
Beta B.1.351 South Africa, May-2020
Gamma P.1 Brazil, Nov-2020
Delta B.1.617.2 India, Oct-2020
Omicron B.1.1.529 Multiple countries, Nov-2021

WHO-Currently designated Variants of Interest

WHO label lineages Earliest documented samples
Lambda C.37 Peru, Dec-2020
Mu B.1.621 Colombia, Jan-2021

Mutations in the Spike Glycoprotein of Omicron

The Omicron variant is by far the most divergent variant characterized by a high number of mutations in the spike protein. Several mutations (e.g., N501Y, P681H) have been identified in previous variants and are associated with increased transmissibility, immune escape, or other properties.

  • 30 amino acid changes: among which 15 are located in the RBD region
  • Three deletions
  • Three insertions in the spike protein NTD

Sino Biological has developed a panel of recombinant RBD/Spike and nucleocapsid protein variants which can be used to evaluate the efficacy of the antibodies and vaccination.

Coming Soon!
Recombinant Mutants from the Omicron Variant | B.1.1.529

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40589-V08H26 S-ECD A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40589-V08B33 S-ECD A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40592-V49H7 RBD G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40589-V49H3-B S-ECD A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40592-V08H121 RBD G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40592-V49H7-B RBD G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40591-V08H41 S1 A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H
40588-V07E34 N P13L, E31del, R32del, S33del, R203K, G204R

Recombinant Mutants from the Indian Variant | B.1.617

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40588-V07E20 N R203M, D377Y
40588-V07E29 N D63G, R203M, D377Y
40592-V08H91 RBD T478K
 40589-V08B12 S1+S2 E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, E1072K, K1073R
40592-V02H3 RBD L452R, T478K
40592-V08H88 RBD L452R,E484Q
40592-V08H28 RBD L452R
40591-V08H19 S1 D614G, E154K, E484Q, L452R, P681R
40592-V08H81 RBD E484Q
40588-V07E16 N D377Y

 

other tags available His & AVI – please inquire

Recombinant Mutants from the U.K. Variant | B.1.1.7

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40592-V08H82-B RBD-Biotinylated N501Y
40591-V08H7 S1 HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614G
40591-V08H12 S1 H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
40588-V07E7 N D3L, R203K, G204R, S235F
40588-V07E8 N D3L, S235F
40589-V08B6 S-ECD H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H

Recombinant Mutants from the South Africa Variant | B.1.351

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40592-V08H84 RBD E484K
40592-V08H59 RBD K417N
40592-V08H85 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y
40591-V08H10 S1 K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G

Recombinant Mutants from the Brazil Variant | P.1

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
40592-V08H84 RBD E484K
40592-V08H86 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y

Recombinant Mutants from the Denmark Mink Variant

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40592-V08H80 RBD Y453F
40591-V08H8 S1 ΔH69/ΔV70, Y453F, D614G
40592-V08H86 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y

High Frequency Mutation of Nucleocapsid

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40588-V07E1 N R203K, G204R
40588-V07E2 N P13L
40588-V07E3 N S194L
40588-V07E4 N I292T

Conserved Domain of Nucleocapsid from SARS-CoV-2

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
40588-V07E5 N-CTD CTD
40588-V07E10 N-NTD NTD

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Mutant

P13L
40588-V07E2
S194L
40588-V07E3
R203K, G204R
40588-V07E1
I292T
40588-V07E4
D3L, R203K, G204R, S235F
40588-V07E7
D3L, S235F
40588-V07E8

SARS-CoV-2 S1+S2 ECD Mutant

HV69-70 deletion, D614G, D796H
40589-V08B5
HV69-70 deletion, Y144 deletion, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H
40589-V08B6

SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Mutant

HV69-70 deletion, Y144 deletion, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
40591-V08H12
HV69-70 deletion, Y453F, D614G
40591-V08H8
HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614G
40591-V08H7
L18F, D614G
40591-V08H6
T20N, D614G
40591-V08H5
A222V, D614G
40591-V08H4
N234Q
40591-V08H11
K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G
40591-V08H10
D614G
40591-V08H3
D614G
40591-V02H3
HV69-70 deletion, N439K, D614G
40591-V08H9
E780Q
40590-V02H1

SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1+S2 ECD Mutant

R683A, R685A, F817P, A892P, A899P, A942P, K986P, V987P
40589-V08H4

Resource for Studying the U.K. Variant

Catalogue  Antigen  Mutation 
40592-V08H82 RBD  N501Y 
40591-V08H7 S1  HV69-70 deletion, N501Y, D614G 
40591-V08H12 S1  H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H 

Recombinant Spike N501Y Mutant
Cat#: 40592-V08H82
Activity: Bind with ACE2

An unprecedented mink cull has been ordered in Denmark amid the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in these farmed animals. The plan was announced after scientists discovered a widespread Y453F mutation in the spike protein, that has been passed from animal to humans.

This mutation is of particular concern, because it occurs at a conservative domain of the receptor binding domain (RBD) directly involved in ACE2 binding. Results from some preliminary studies suggest the Y453F mutation affects the ability of the Spike protein to bind with ACE2, while others demonstrate that the mutated spike can escape from detection from a commercial anti-S antibody.

Although there is still no clear evidence indicating this mutation, or any other mutation like the popular D614G, has any clinical significance, the characteristics of the mutations need to be thoroughly investigated in the context of vaccine and antibody therapy.

Sino Biological has launched the recombinant Y453F RBD protein. This product is the newest addition to a large library of recombinant spike variants (full list here). These proteins can be used to evaluate the efficacy of the antibodies and vaccination.

SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies

Cat# Antigen Description Type
40588-T62 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleocapsid Antibody Rabbit PAb
40143-R001 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Rabbit MAb
40143-MM05 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Mouse MAb
40143-R019 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleocapsid Antibody Rabbit MAb
40143-MM08 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Mouse MAb
40143-R040 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Rabbit MAb
40143-R004 Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody Rabbit MAb
40150-R007 Spike SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1 Antibody Rabbit MAb
40150-D006 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Chimeric MAb
40150-D004 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody Chimeric MAb
40150-D003 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody Chimeric MAb
40150-D005 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody Chimeric MAb
40150-D002 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody Chimeric MAb
40150-D001 Spike SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody Chimeric MAb
40590-D001 Spike S2 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S2 Antibody, Chimeric Mab Chimeric Mab
40592-T62 Spike SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD Antibody Rabbit PAb
40590-T62 Spike SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S2 Antibody Rabbit PAb

Validated Applications

IF (40150-R007) – Pseudovirus Validated

SARS-CoV-2 Spike in ACE2-overexpressed 293T cells, infected (left) or noninfected (right) by 2019-nCOV pseudovirus

WB (40143-MM05)

1-2: SARS-CoV N Protein
3-4: 2019-nCoV N Protein

IHC (40143-R019)

Renal tissue from COVID-19 Patient. N antigens in kidney tubules is validated by IHC

Catalogue
Species
Antigen
Type
Description
SARS-CoV-2
S RBD
Rabbit PAb
WB, ELISA, IHC-PF CM, ICC/IF, IP
SARS-CoV-2
Nucleocapsid
Rabbit PAb
WB, ELISA, IHC-PF CM, ICC/IF, IP
SARS-CoV-2
S2 subunit
Rabbit PAb
WB, ELISA, IHC-PF CM, ICC/IF, IP
SARS-CoV
Nucleocapsid
Rabbit PAb
Has cross-reactivity in ELISA with SARS-CoV-2 N Protein (Cat# 40588-V08B).
SARS-CoV
Spike
Rabbit PAb
Has cross-reactivity in ELISA and WB with SARS-CoV-2 S1 (Cat# 40591-V08H) and S-RBD (Cat# 40592-V05H)

Sars-CoV-2 Neutralising antibodies

Cat # 40591-MM43 40592-MM57 40592-R001
Description Anti-Spike S1 Anti-Spike RBD Anti-Spike RBD
Type Mouse MAb Mouse MAb Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Mouse IgG1 Mouse IgG2b Rabbit IgG
Application Neutralization, ELISA Neutralization, ELISA Neutralization, ELISA

Neutralization Activity Assay
Neutralizing antibodies can effectively inhibit the infection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike pseudovirus on ACE2 overexpression 293T cells.

S1 Neutralizing Antibody

Conc. (µg/mL)Inhibition%
10096.39%
1094.57%
142.24%
0.1-5.53%

RBD Neutralizing Antibody 

Conc. (µg/mL)Inhibition%
10095.51%
1093.32%
175.69%
0.110.11%

RBD Neutralizing Antibody Rabbit MAb

Conc. (µg/mL)Inhibition%
10099.56%
499.9%
0.1659.29%
0.0325.59%

Competitive-ELISA Assay
Neutralizing ability was detected by SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor Screening ELISA Kit (Catalog# KIT001) using competitive ELISA.

S1 Neutralizing Antibody

The IC50 is typically 0.857 nM

RBD Neutralizing Antibody

The IC50 is typically 3.694 nM

RBD Neutralizing Antibody Rabbit MAb

The IC50 is typically 0.066 nM

Specificity Assay

SARS-CoV-2 shares 80% sequence identity to the 2003 SARS-CoV. Hence, antibodies raised against SARS-CoV-2 antigens often shows various degree of cross-reactivity with the corresponding antigens of 2003 SARS-CoV. On the other hand, the similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and other members of human coronavirus are very limited. The following two clones of anti-spike antibodies have been tested against all seven coronavirus, and are shown to be specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike.

The reactivity of the antibodies against the known coronavirus is assessed in ELISA. The reactivity (OD450) is illustrated in the figure below.

S1 Neutralizing Antibody

RBD Neutralizing Antibody

Inihibitor Screening ELISA kits

Cat # Product Name
KIT001 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Inhibitor Screening ELISA Kit Competitive ELISA

Antibody Titer Assay Kits

Cat # Product Name
KIT002 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD Antibody Titer Assay Kit Indirect ELISA kit
KIT003 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1 Antibody Titer Assay Kit Indirect ELISA kit
KIT004 SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike S1+S2 ECD Antibody Titer Assay Kit Indirect ELISA kit

The S and N detection kits employ a standard sandwich ELISA, allowing rapid quantification of the N and S antigens.

  • All antibodies used in the kits are in-house developed monoclonal antibodies, ensuring batch-to-batch consistency.
  • These assays may be used to quantify antigens on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 and/or pseudovirus, as well as antigens expressed recombinantly.

2019-nCoV N Detection Kit
(KIT40588)

Sino Biological and Nanommune (Irvine, California) jointly developed the coronavirus antigen array. These arrays are constructed by printing recombinant antigens on a nitrocellulose-coated membrane. It can analyze serum antibodies against 65 antigens from 23 types of viruses known to cause respiratory tract infections, including SARS-COV-2 and the other six coronaviruses. The array is specifically designed for high throughput serological surveillance studies.

Catalogue

Description Species Tag Vector
VG40588-UT CoV Nucleocapsid 2019-nCoV 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40589-UT CoV spike 2019-nCoV 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40592-UT CoV spike 2019-nCoV 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40590-UT CoV spike 2019-nCoV 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40591-UT CoV spike 2019-nCoV 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40596-UT CoV Hemagglutinin esterase 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40598-UT CoV Membrane 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40599-UT CoV NSP10 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40594-UT CoV 3CLpro / 3C-like protease 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40597-UT CoV Envelope 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression
VG40593-UT CoV NSP3 2019-nCoV No Tag Expression

cDNA ORF clones expression plasmids

  • Sino Biological provides ready-to-use expression ORF clones without subcloning. The expression ORF clones can be use for transfecting immediately.
  • Codon Optimized clones for high expression, no tag
  • Datasheet contains complete information on on plasmid, gene and quality control

THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO SELECTING THE PROPER ANTIBODIES FOR YOUR COVID-19 STUDY

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemics has sickened 3.6 million people around the world, claiming over 250,000 lives. To address this global public health crisis, unprecedented efforts are being made to study the culprit virus, SARS-CoV-2. The biomedical community are working to develop rapid diagnostic reagents, vaccines, and therapies against this virus.

To support these studies, Sino Biological has developed a large collection of antibodies against different antigens of SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies can be used to detect and/or neutralize the virus in a variety of assays  including ELISA, western blot, Immunofluorescent staining, Immunohistochemistry, SPR (Biacore and Octet), pseudovirus infection, and potentially in vivo animal studies.

This guide covers all available SARS-CoV-2 antibodies offered by Sino Biological. The readers can find technical information about their specificity and sensitivity, cross-reactivity, neutralizing potential, and their validated applications. The overarching goal for this guide is to help the readers to choose appropriate antibodies for their own experiments.

Same as all other coronaviruses, the genome of SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) encodes the spike protein, the envelope protein, the non-structure proteins including the proteases and methyltransferases, the membrane protein, and the nucleocapsid protein.

1

The spike protein (S-protein) is the common target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccines. Spike protein contains two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing and binding with the cell surface receptor ACE2. S2 subunit contains other basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.

3

The Nucleocapsid Protein (N-protein) is a highly immunogenic phosphoprotein, and it is normally very conserved. The SARS-CoV-2 N protein is often used as a marker in diagnostic assays.

5

The papain-like protease (PlPro) is a protease. It mediates the post-translational processing of other non-structural proteins like replicase polyprotein. PlPro, and 3CLPro. PlPro is a target for antiviral drug development.

4

The methyltransferase is a non-structural protein. Methyltransferase mediates the methylation of the viral RNA, which may help the virus evade the host immune system. Methyltransferase inhibitor may work as an anti-viral treatment.

6

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binds with the Spike protein of coronaviruses  SARS-CoV  and  HCoV-NL63. This interaction is mediated by the RBD domain of the spike protein, and is believed to be the pivotal event in the membrane fusion process.

ELSIA Antibody Pairs

Pairs Ⅰ

Cat # 40143-R004 (Capture)
Description Anti-Nucleocapsid
Type Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Rabbit IgG
Cat # 40143-R040 (Detection)
Description Anti-Nucleocapsid
Type Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Rabbit IgG

Pairs ⅠⅠ

Cat # 40143-MM05 (Capture)
Description Anti-Nucleocapsid
Type Mouse MAb
Ig Type Mouse IgG
Cat # 40143-R001 (Detection)
Description Anti-Nucleocapsid
Type Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Rabbit IgG

Western Blot Antibodies

Cat # 40143-R019
Description Anti-Nucleocapsid
Type Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Rabbit IgG

FULL LIST OF ANTI-NUCLEOCAPSID ANTIBODIES

Cat # Description Type Ig Type
40143-R001 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40143-R040 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40143-R004 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40588-R0004 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40143-R019 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40143-MM05 Anti-Nucleocapsid Mouse MAb Mouse IgG1
40143-MM08 Anti-Nucleocapsid Mouse MAb Mouse IgG1
40588-T62 Anti-Nucleocapsid Rabbit PAb Rabbit IgG

ELSIA Antibody Pairs

Pairs Ⅰ

Cat # 40150-D001 (Capture)
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1
Cat # 40150-D003 (Detection)
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1

Pairs ⅠⅠ

Cat # 40150-D004 (Detection)
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1
Cat # 40150-D002 (Capture)
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1

Neutralization Antibodies

Cat # 40591-MM43
Description Anti-Spike S1
Type Mouse MAb
Ig Type Mouse IgG1
Cat # 40591-MM57
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type Mouse IgG2b

IF Antibodies

Cat # 40150-R007
Description Anti-Spike S1
Type Rabbit MAb
Ig Type Rabbit IgG

High Affinity Antibodies

Cat # 40150-D005
Description Anti-Spike RBD
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1

Antibodies against the S2 Protein

Cat # 40590-D001
Description Anti-Spike S2
Type Chimeric MAb
Ig Type mouse v domain / human IgG1

This is a chimeric antibody specifically recognizing the S2 domain of SARS-CoV-2. The specificity assay is assessed in ELISA which shows no cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 S1, RBD or MERS-CoV S2.

FULL LIST OF ANTI-SPIKE ANTIBODIES

Cat # Description Type Ig Type
40591-MM43 Anti-Spike S1 Mouse Mab,Neutralizing Antibody Mouse IgG1
40150-R007 Anti-Spike S1 Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40150-D001 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D002 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D003 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D004 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D005 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40150-D006 Anti-Spike S1 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40592-MM57 Anti-Spike RBD Mouse Mab,Neutralizing Antibody Mouse IgG2b
40592-T62 Anti-Spike RBD Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40590-D001 Anti-Spike S2 Chimeric MAb mouse v domain / human IgG1
40590-T62 Anti-Spike S2 Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
40589-T62 Anti-Spike Rabbit MAb Rabbit IgG
Cat # 40592-MM57
Description Spike RBD Antibody
Type Mouse MAb
Ig Type Monoclonal Mouse IgG2b
Application ELISA, Neutralization
Cat # 40591-MM43
Description Spike S1 Antibody
Type Mouse MAb
Ig Type Monoclonal Mouse IgG1
Application ELISA, Neutralization

The reactivity of the antibodies against the known coronavirus is assessed in ELISA. The reactivity (OD450) is illustrated in the figure below.

SARS-CoV-2 shares 80% sequence identity to the 2003 SARS-CoV. Hence, antibodies raised against SARS-CoV-2 antigens often shows various degree of cross-reactivity with the corresponding antigens of 2003 SARS-CoV. On the other hand, the similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and other members of human coronavirus are very limited. The following two clones of anti-spike antibodies have been tested against all seven coronavirus, and are shown to be specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike.

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Omicron (B.1.1.529)

Mutations in the Spike Glycoprotein of Omicron

The Omicron variant is by far the most divergent variant characterized by a high number of mutations in the spike protein. Several mutations (e.g., N501Y, P681H) have been identified in previous variants and are associated with increased transmissibility, immune escape, or other properties.

  • 30 amino acid changes: among which 15 are located in the RBD region
  • Three deletions
  • Three insertions in the spike protein NTD
Cat# Antigen Tag Expressed Host Mutants
40589-V08H26 S-ECD C-His HEK293 A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40589-V08B33 S-ECD C-His Insect A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40589-V49H3-B S-ECD C-His-AVI HEK293 A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F
40592-V08H121 RBD C-His HEK293 G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40592-V49H7 RBD HEK293 C-His-AVI G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40592-V49H7-B RBD C-His-AVI HEK293 G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H
40591-V08H41 S1 C-His HEK293 A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H
40588-V07E34 N N-His E.coli P13L, E31del, R32del, S33del, R203K, G204R

Mu (B.1.621)

Variants in S Protein

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Mu B.1.621 40588-V07E9 N T205I
Mu B.1.621 40589-V08H20 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H with prefusion trimer mutations construction
Mu B.1.621 40591-V08H38 (pre-order) S1 T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H
Mu B.1.621 40592-V08H118 RBD R346K, E484K, N501Y
Mu B.1.621 40592-V02H6 (pre-order) RBD R346K, E484K, N501Y

Lambda (C.37)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Lambda C.37 40588-V07E31 N P13L, R203K, G204R, G214C
Lambda C.37 40592-V08H113 RBD L452Q, F490S
Lambda C.37 40589-V08B23 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD G75V, T76I, R246N, Δ247, Δ253, L452Q, F490S, D614G, T859N
Lambda C.37 40589-V08B24 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD G75V, T76I, R246del, S247del, Y248del, L249del, T250del, P251del, G252del, D253N, L452Q, F490S, D614G, T859N
Lambda C.37 40591-V08H31 S1 G75V, T76I, R246N, Δ247, Δ253, L452Q, F490S, D614G
Lambda C.37 40591-V08H32 S1 G75V, T76I, (RSYLTPG246-252)deletion, D253N, L452Q, F490S, D614G
Lambda C.37 40592-V49H6-B RBD L452Q, F490S

Delta/Delta plus (AY.1, AY.2, AY.3)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Delta/Delta plus AY.1/AY.3 40588-V07E32 N D63G, R203M, G215C, D377Y
Delta/Delta plus AY.1/AY.2 40592-V08H115 RBD K417N, L452R, T478K
Delta/Delta plus AY.1/AY.2 40592-V49H5-B RBD K417N, L452R, T478K
Delta/Delta plus AY.1 40589-V08B25 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD T19R, G142D, W258L, K417N, L452R, T478KD614G, D950N, P681R
Delta/Delta plus AY.2 40589-V08B26 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD T19R, V70F, E156G, del157/158, A222V, K417N, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N
Delta/Delta plus AY.3 40589-V08B27 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD T19R, E156G, del157/158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N

Delta (B.1.617.2)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant Delta (B.1.617.2) Variants

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Delta B.1.617.2 40588-V07E29 N D63G, R203M, D377Y
Delta B.1.617.2 40589-V49B4-B S1+S2 ECD 157-158deletion, T19R, G142D, E156G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N
Delta B.1.617.2 40589-V08B16 S1+S2 ECD T19R, G142D, E156G, del157/158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N
Delta B.1.617.2 40591-V08H23 S1 T19R, G142D, E156G, del157/158, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R
Delta B.1.617.2 40591-V49H2-B S1 (157-158)deletion, T19R, G142D, E156G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R
Delta B.1.617.2 40592-V02H3 RBD L452R, T478K
Delta B.1.617.2 40592-V08H90 RBD L452R, T478K
Delta B.1.617.2 40592-V08H91 RBD T478K
Delta B.1.617.2 40592-V49H1-B RBD L452R, T478K

Alpha/Beta (B.1.1.7/ B.1.351/ A.2.2)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Alpha/Beta B.1.1.7/ B.1.351/ A.2.2 40588-V07E2 N P13L

Alpha/Beta/Gamma (B.1.1.7/ B.1.351/ P.1)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Alpha/Beta/Gamma B.1.1.7/ B.1.351/ P.1 40592-V31H1 RBD N501Y

Alpha (B.1.1.7)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant Alpha (B.1.1.7) Variants

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Alpha B.1.1.7 40588-V07E1 N R203K, G204R
Alpha B.1.1.7 40588-V07E17 N E378Q
Alpha B.1.1.7 40588-V07E4 N I292T
Alpha B.1.1.7 40588-V07E7 N D3L, R203K, G204R, S235F
Alpha B.1.1.7 40588-V07E8 N D3L, S235F
Alpha B.1.1.7/ B.1.237 40588-V07E3 N S194L
Alpha B.1.1.7 40589-V08B6 S1+S2 ECD H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H
Alpha B.1.1.7 40589-V49B-B S1+S2 ECD H69del, V70del, Y145del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, D1118H
Alpha B.1.1.7 40591-V08H12 S1 H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
Alpha B.1.1.7 40591-V08H12-B S1-Biotinylated H69del, V70del, Y144del, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
Alpha B.1.1.7 40591-V08H7 S1 HV69-70deletion, N501Y, D614G
Alpha B.1.1.7 40591-V49H4-B S1 (HV69-70, Y145)deletion, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H
Alpha B.1.1.7 40592-V02H1 RBD N501Y
Alpha B.1.1.7 40592-V08H18 RBD S494P
Alpha B.1.1.7 40592-V08H82 RBD N501Y
Alpha B.1.1.7 40592-V08H82-B RBD N501Y
Alpha B.1.1.7 40592-V49H2-B RBD N501Y

Beta (B.1.351)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant Beta (B.1.351) Variants

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/ B.1.351.3/B.1.427/B.1.429 40588-V07E9 N T205I
Beta B.1.351 40589-V08B11 S1+S2 ECD D80A, L242del, A243del, L244del, R246I, E484K, K417N, N501Y, D614G, A701V
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40589-V08B7 S1+S2 ECD L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40589-V08B9 S1+S2 ECD D80A, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V
Beta B.1.351 40589-V49B1-B S1+S2 ECD
Beta B.1.351 40589-V08B7-B S1+S2-Biotinylated L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40591-V08H13 S1 NTD L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244deletion, R246I
Beta B.1.351 40591-V08H10-B S1 K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40591-V08H10 S1 K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40591-V08H15 S1 L18F, D80A, D215G, LAL242-244deletion, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40591-V49H5-B S1 (LAL242-244)deletion, L18F, D80A, D215G, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G
Beta B.1.351 40592-V08H59 RBD K417N
Beta B.1.351 40592-V08H59-B RBD K417N
Beta B.1.351 40592-V08H84 RBD E484K
Beta B.1.351 40592-V08H84-B RBD E484K
Beta B.1.351 40592-V08H85-B RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y
Beta B.1.351 40592-V31H2 RBD E484K
Beta B.1.351 40592-V31H6 RBD K417N
Beta B.1.351/ B.1.351.3 40592-V31H4 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40592-V02H4 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40592-V08H85 RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y
Beta B.1.351/B.1.351.2/B.1.351.3 40592-V49H3-B RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y

Gamma (P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant Gamma (P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2) Variants

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40588-V07E11 N P80R
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40589-V08B10 S1+S2 ECD L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I, V1176F
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40589-V08B8 S1+S2 ECD L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40591-V08H14 S1 L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40591-V08H5 S1 T20N, D614G
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40591-V49H6-B S1 L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40592-V02H5 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40592-V08H86 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40592-V31H5 RBD K417T, E484K, N501Y
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40592-V31H7 RBD K417T
Gamma P.1/ P.1.1/ P.1.2 40592-V49H4-B RBD E484K, K417T, N501Y

Epsilon (B.1.427/429)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Epsilon B.1.427 40591-V08H27 S1 L452R, D614G
Epsilon B.1.429/B.1.427 40591-V08H17 S1 W152C, L452R, D614G

Eta (B.1.525)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Eta B.1.525 40588-V07E19 N A12G, T205I
Eta B.1.525 S1+S2 ECD Q52R, A67V, 69/70del, 144del, E484K, D614G, Q677H, F888L
Eta B.1.525 40591-V08H29 S1 Q52R, A67V, 69/70del, 144del, E484K, D614G, Q677H
Eta B.1.525 40591-V08H16 S1 Q677H

Iota (B.1.526)

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Iota B.1.526 40588-V07E18 N P199L, M234I
Iota B.1.526 40592-V08H112 RBD S477N, E484K
Iota B.1.526 40589-V08B21 S1+S2 ECD L5F, T95I, D253G, S477N, E484K, D614G, A701V
Iota B.1.526 40591-V08H28 S1 L5F, T95I, D253G, S477N, E484K, D614G

Kappa (B.1.617.1)

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant Kappa (B.1.617.1) Variants

Label Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Kappa B.1.617.1 40589-V49B3-B S1+S2 ECD T95I, G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, Q1071H
Kappa B.1.617.1 40589-V08B15 S1+S2 ECD T95I, G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, Q1071H
Kappa B.1.617.1 40591-V49H1-B S1 T95I, G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R
Kappa B.1.617.1 40591-V08H22 S1 T95I, G142D, E154K, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R
Kappa B.1.617/B.1.617.1/B.1.617.3 40592-V02H2 RBD L452R, E484Q
Kappa B.1.617/B.1.617.1/B.1.617.3 40592-V08H88 RBD L452R, E484Q
Kappa B.1.617/B.1.617.1/B.1.617.3 40592-V08H88-B RBD L452R, E484Q
Kappa B.1.617/B.1.617.1/B.1.617.3 40592-V49H-B RBD L452R, E484Q

B.1.617

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant B.1.617 Variants

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
B.1.617 40588-V07E16 N D377Y
B.1.617 40588-V07E20 N R203M, D377Y
B.1.617 40589-V08B12 S1+S2 ECD D614G, E154K, E484Q, E1072K, K1073R, L452R, P681R
B.1.617 40589-V08B13 S1+S2 ECD D614G, E154K, E484Q, G142D, H1101D, L452R, P681R, Q1071H
B.1.617 40589-V49B2-B S1+S2 ECD
B.1.617 40591-V08H19 S1 D614G, E154K, E484Q, L452R, P681R
B.1.617 40592-V08H28 RBD L452R
B.1.617 40592-V08H81 RBD E484Q

B.1.617.3

Variants in S Protein

Variants in N Protein

Recombinant B.1.617.3 Variants

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
B.1.617.3 40588-V07E30 N P67S, R203M, D377Y
B.1.617.3 40589-V49B5-B S1+S2 ECD T19R, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, D950N, G142D
B.1.617.3 40589-V49B5-B S1+S2 ECD T19R, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, D950N, G142D
B.1.617.3 40589-V08B17 S1+S2 ECD T19R, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, D950N, G142D
B.1.617.3 40591-V08H24 S1 T19R, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R, G142D
B.1.617.3 40591-V49H3-B S1 T19R, G142D, L452R, E484Q, D614G, P681R

B.1.618

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
B.1.618 40588-V07E28 N G18S, A119S, A217S, M234I, E367Q
B.1.618 40589-V08B14 S1+S2 ECD Y145del, H146del, E484K, D614G
B.1.618 40591-V08H21 S1 H49Y, Y145del, H146del, E484K, D614G

B.1.620

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
B.1.620 40589-V08B18 (pre-order) S1+S2 ECD P26S, HV69-70del, V126A, Y144del, LLA241-243del, H245Y, S477N, E484K, D614G, P681H, T1027I, D1118H

B.1.2

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
B.1.2 40588-V07E22 N P67S, P199L

A.23.1

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
A.23.1 40588-V07E23 N S202N

P.2

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
P.2 40588-V07E21 N A119S, R203K, G204R, M234I
P.2 40589-V08B19 S1+S2 ECD E484K, F565L, D614G, V1176F
P.2 40591-V08H26 S1 E484K, F565L, D614G, V1176F

P.3

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
P.3 40592-V08H111 RBD E484K, N501Y

Mink Variant

Lineage Catalogue Antigen Mutations
Mink Variant 40591-V08H8 S1 ΔH69/ΔV70, Y453F, D614G
Mink Variant 40592-V08H80 RBD Y453F
Mink Variant 40592-V31H3 RBD Y453F

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Catalogue Antigen Mutations Tag
40588-V07E12 N P199L His
40588-V07E13 N A220V His
40588-V07E14 N p67S His
40588-V07E15 N M234L His
40589-V08B4 S1+S2 ECD D614G His
40589-V08B5 S1+S2 ECD HV69-70deletion, D614G, D796H His
40591-V08H20 S1 N343Q His
40591-V02H3 S1 D614G Fc
40591-V08H11 S1 N234Q His
40591-V08H3 S1 D614G His
40591-V08H4 S1 A222V, D614G His
40591-V08H6 S1 L18F, D614G His
40591-V08H9 S1 HV69-70deletion, N439K, D614G His
40591-V08H25(pre-order) S1 P26S, HV69-70del, V126A, Y144del, LLA241-243del, H245Y, S477N, E484K, D614G, P681H His
40592-V08H100 RBD P479L His
40592-V08H101 RBD P479H His
40592-V08H102 RBD N481K His
40592-V08H103 RBD E484A His
40592-V08H104 RBD E484D His
40592-V08H105 RBD N487D His
40592-V08H106 RBD Y449H His
40592-V08H107 RBD G502V His
40592-V08H89 RBD F486A His
40592-V08H92 RBD N440D His
40592-V08H93 RBD F456Y His
40592-V08H94 RBD E471A His
40592-V08H95 RBD E471D His
40592-V08H96 RBD Y473F His
40592-V08H97 RBD A475T His
40592-V08H98 RBD G476A His
40592-V08H99 RBD S477G His
40592-V05H1 RBD V367F mFc
40592-V08H1 RBD V367F His
40592-V08H10 RBD R408I His
40592-V08H11 RBD V341I His
40592-V08H12 RBD Y508H His
40592-V08H14 RBD N439K His
40592-V08H15 RBD V503F His
40592-V08H16 RBD A522V His
40592-V08H19 RBD A372S His
40592-V08H2 RBD N354D His
40592-V08H20 RBD A520S His
40592-V08H21 RBD A522S His
40592-V08H22 RBD D405V, Q414A His
40592-V08H23 RBD Q414E His
40592-V08H24 RBD P384L His
40592-V08H25 RBD A348S His
40592-V08H26 RBD F338L His
40592-V08H27 RBD F377L His
40592-V08H29 RBD P521S His
40592-V08H2-B RBD N354D His
40592-V08H30 RBD T478I His
40592-V08H31 RBD V483I His
40592-V08H32 RBD S359N His
40592-V08H33 RBD K378R His
40592-V08H34 RBD Q409E His
40592-V08H35 RBD I472V His
40592-V08H36 RBD A372T His
40592-V08H37 RBD A344S His
40592-V08H39 RBD A520V His
40592-V08H4 RBD A435S His
40592-V08H40 RBD E406Q His
40592-V08H41 RBD F490S His
40592-V08H42 RBD K378N His
40592-V08H43 RBD N370S His
40592-V08H44 RBD Q414R His
40592-V08H45 RBD S477I His
40592-V08H46 RBD S477N His
40592-V08H47 RBD T385A His
40592-V08H48 RBD T393P His
40592-V08H49 RBD V395I His
40592-V08H5 RBD V483A His
40592-V08H50 RBD A475V His
40592-V08H51 RBD G446V His
40592-V08H52 RBD G485S His
40592-V08H53 RBD G482S His
40592-V08H54 RBD K444R His
40592-V08H55 RBD N440K His
40592-V08H56 RBD E471Q His
40592-V08H57 RBD P479S His
40592-V08H58 RBD A352S His
40592-V08H6 RBD F342L His
40592-V08H62 RBD P337S His
40592-V08H63 RBD P521R His
40592-V08H64 RBD S477R His
40592-V08H68 RBD L455F His
40592-V08H69 RBD K458Q His
40592-V08H7 RBD K458R His
40592-V08H70 RBD N481D His
40592-V08H71 RBD F456L His
40592-V08H72 RBD Y505C His
40592-V08H73 RBD F456E His
40592-V08H74 RBD F486S His
40592-V08H75 RBD N487R His
40592-V08H76 RBD G446S His
40592-V08H78 RBD P499R His
40592-V08H79 RBD V445F His
40592-V08H8 RBD G476S His
40592-V08H83 RBD F490L His
40592-V08H9 RBD W436R His

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