Infectious Diseases

The 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to “Harvey J Alter, Michael Houhgton and Charles M Rice“ for their discoveries of “Hepatitis C virus“.

Viruses are small infectious agents that exist in the gray area between “living” and “nonliving” entities. In contrast to most bacteria, fungi, or parasites, viruses are completely dependent on the host cell for their replication, hijacking the cell’s biochemical machinery through the actions of viral genome-encoded factors. The fundamental structure of the viral particle includes the DNA or RNA genome within a protein coat, or capsid. This capsid is, for some viruses, enclosed within a lipid envelope usually derived from the host cell membrane. Attachment of a virus to a specific receptor on a host cell leads to internalization and frequently the initiation of a new round of viral replication.

There are more than 200 virus species that can infect humans, not including many others that affect humanity by targeting plants and animals used by people. Included in this viral pathogen list are the influenza viruses, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis viruses (e.g., HCV & HBV), enterovirus (EV71, EV68, and coxsackievirus) and Zika virus. GeneTex is proud to offer an extensive catalog of antibody reagents that can facilitate your research into these and other viruses.

Featured Products

Recombinant Citation-Support Comparable Abs Orthogonal Validation

ASFV p54 antibody [HL1289] (GTX636703)

Recombinant

ASFV p54 antibody [HL1289] (GTX636703)

Recombinant

Chikungunya Virus nsP2 antibody [HL1488] (GTX636962)

Recombinant

Dengue Virus prM protein antibody (GTX128092)

Citation-Support

Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein antibody [HL1103] (GTX636318)

RecombinantComparable Abs

Porcine circovirus type 2 / PCV2 Capsid antibody (GTX128120)

Citation-Support

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nucleoprotein antibody [HL1248] (GTX636650)

RecombinantComparable AbsOrthogonal Validation

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nucleoprotein antibody [HL1248] (GTX636650)

RecombinantComparable AbsOrthogonal Validation

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL6] (GTX635654)

RecombinantCitation-Support

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL6] (GTX635654)

RecombinantCitation-Support

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP2 antibody [HL1919] (GTX637668)

RecombinantOrthogonal Validation

Zika Virus Envelope protein antibody (GTX133314)

Citation-SupportOrthogonal Validation

GeneTex’s Comprehensive Product and Literature Catalog for Viral Infectious Disease Research

Figure 1. The Coxsackievirus (CV) virio

Figure 2. Coxsackievirus (CV) genomic organization

Featured Products

Citation-Support

Coxsackievirus A6 VP2 antibody (GTX132348)

Coxsackievirus A6 VP3 antibody (GTX132689)

Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor antibody (GTX118382)

Product Name Clonality Applications Cat. No
Coxsackie Adenovirus Receptor antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP GTX118382 Citation-Support
Coxsackievirus A6 VP1 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF GTX132346 Citation-Support
Coxsackievirus A6 VP2 antibody Rb pAb WB GTX132348
Coxsackievirus A6 VP2 antibody Rb pAb WB GTX132347
Coxsackievirus A6 VP3 antibody Rb pAb WB GTX132689
Coxsackievirus A6 VP3 antibody Rb pAb WB GTX132688
Dengue (DEN) is the most serious of the mosquito-borne viral diseases. It is caused by Dengue virus (DENV), from any of the four serotypes (DEN1-4). Patients develop long-term immunity to the initial infecting serotype. However, sequential infection by different serotypes leads to a greater risk of serious disease manifestations. From this observation emerged the hypothesis of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection, whereby previously acquired anti-DENV antibodies appear to facilitate both higher viremia and amplified release of inflammatory mediators in response to heterotypic DENV infection. This may explain the epidemiological findings that infants born to DEN-immune mothers are at higher risk of more severe clinical disease. Now Ng et al (1), using an elegant mouse model system, offer compelling evidence in support of the ADE hypothesis in the mother-offspring scenario. They found that DENV2-infected offspring born to DENV1-immune mothers displayed more serious disease and died sooner compared to DENV2-infected mice born to naïve mothers. Notably, the susceptibility to disease was age-dependent, recapitulating the epidemiological observations. Taken together, this ADE mouse model joins a growing list of animal models of infectious disease, and will provide promising opportunities to further dissect the underlying mechanisms of Dengue pathogenesis.
The Dengue virus (DEN) is of the genus Flavivirus and possesses a positive-strand RNA genome of approximately 10.6 kb that contains a single open-reading frame encoding for a polyprotein, which can be further cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into three structural proteins (capsid protein C, membrane protein M, envelope protein E), and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5).
GeneTex proudly offers a comprehensive catalog of outstanding antibodies to DENV proteins. While most of these were created using recombinant antigens from DEN2, the majority are very likely to cross-react with the other serotypes. A few of the antibodies are more DEN2-specific. Please note our seven mouse monoclonal antibodies against the “E”, “NS1”, “NS3”, and “NS5” proteins that are validated for both ICC/IF and western blot (see below).

Dengue Virus Protein Schematic Diagram

WB analysis of virus-infected BHK21 cells. WB analysis with GeneTex dengue virus antibodies on virus-infected BHK21 cells. (A) mock. (B) virus infection.

Featured Products

Dengue virus Capsid protein antibody
(GTX124247)

ICC/IF analysis of capsid protein (Dengue virus) antibody on BHK-21 cells infected with Dengue 3 virus.

Dengue virus prM protein antibody
(GTX128092)

ICC/IF analysis of PrM protein (Dengue virus) antibody on BHK-21 cells infected with Dengue 3 virus.

Dengue virus Envelope protein antibody
(GTX629117)

ICC/IF analysis of envelope protein (Dengue virus) antibody on BHK-21 cells infected with Dengue 2 virus.

Dengue virus NS1 protein antibody
(GTX124280)

ICC/IF analysis of NS1 protein (Dengue virus) antibody on BHK-21 cells infected with Dengue 2 virus.

Dengue virus NS3 protein antibody
(GTX629477)

ICC/IF analysis of NS3 protein (Dengue virus) antibody on BHK-21 cells infected with Dengue 2 virus.

Figure 1. The EBOV virion

Figure 2. The EBOV genomic organization and EBOV-specific RNA editing

Highlighted Products

Ebola virus NP antibody (GTX134031)

Ebola virus VP35 antibody (GTX134032)

Ebola virus VP40 antibody (GTX134034)

Ebola virus NP antibody (GTX134031)

Ebola virus VP35 antibody (GTX134032)

Ebola virus VP40 antibody (GTX134034)

Ebola virus GP1 antibody (GTX134144)

Ebola virus GP2-delta antibody (GTX134145)

Ebola virus VP30 antibody (GTX134036)

Ebola virus GP1 antibody (GTX134144)

Ebola virus GP2-delta antibody (GTX134145)

Ebola virus VP30 antibody (GTX134036)

Figure 1. The EV-D68 virion

The Enterovirus genus (family Picornaviridae) encompasses 15 species, though only seven of these (i.e., Enterovirus A to D and Rhinovirus A to C) include viruses that infect humans. Each species contains various “types”, with the Enterovirus D species having five of which two (Enteroviruses D68 (EV-D68) and D70 (EV-D70)) infect only humans. EV-D68 can cause severe respiratory disease and is linked to the neurologic syndrome acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) that overwhelmingly (>90%) affects children (1, 2). Though first described in 1962, it is over the last one to two decades that there has been an increasing worldwide incidence of EV-D68 cases that tracks with AFM outbreaks. The EV-D68 genome has evolved rapidly and is now categorized into four clades, with mutations that appear to have broadened tissue tropism and virulence (including neurovirulence). Presently there are no available vaccines or antiviral agents for these pathogens.

Enterovirus D viruses are small and non-enveloped with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that is translated into a single polyprotein subsequently processed into 11 mature proteins. These include the four structural proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 in addition to seven nonstructural proteins (i.e., 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D) (2). Further characterization of their functions and host-viral factor interactions are essential for a better understanding of Enterovirus D pathogenesis.

GeneTex continues to expand its infectious disease catalog with a growing portfolio of reagents for non-poliovirus Enterovirus (NPVE) research (including antibodies against Coxsackievirus A6, Enterovirus A71, and Enterovirus D68). This includes the new recombinant rabbit monoclonal Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [HL1997] (GTX637898) for the EV-D68 product line. Please see the highlighted product images and a complete EV-D68 antibody listing below.

Figure 2. The EV-D68 genome codes for a single polyprotein that is processed into 11 mature proteins.

Featured Products

Recombinant Citation-Support Orthogonal Validation

Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [HL1997] (GTX637898)

Recombinant Orthogonal Validation

Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [GT11610] (GTX633688)

RecombinantOrthogonal Validation

Capture: Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [GT11610] (GTX633688) Detection: Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [HL1997] (GTX637898)

RecombinantOrthogonal Validation

Enterovirus D68 VP1 protein, His tag (GTX138561-pro)

Enterovirus D68 VP3 antibody [GT1665] (GTX633706)

Citation-Support

Enterovirus D68 2B antibody (GTX134419)

Product Name Clonality Applications Cat. No.
Enterovirus D68 VP2 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr GTX132314 Citation-Support
Enterovirus D68 VP3 antibody [GT1665] Ms mAb WB GTX633706 Citation-Support
Enterovirus D68 VP3 antibody Rb pAb WB, IHC-P GTX132315 Citation-Support
Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [HL1997] Rec Rb mAb WB, ELISA, Lateral Flow, Sandwich ELISA GTX637898 Recombinant Orthogonal Validation
Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [GT11610] Rec Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA, IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX633688 Recombinant Orthogonal Validation
Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody [GT1843] Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, ELISA, Lateral Flow, IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX633770 Citation-SupportOrthogonal Validation
Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS GTX132313 Citation-Support Orthogonal Validation
Enterovirus D68 VP1 antibody Rb pAb WB GTX132312 Citation-Support
Enterovirus D68 2B antibody Rb pAb WB GTX134419

Figure 1. The EV71 virion

 

Discovered in 1969, human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in young children, with a subset of patients developing more severe neurological disease that can result in death. Though epidemics have become more numerous since 1997, there are still no effective therapies or an established vaccine. Clearly, further research into the biology of this virus is of the utmost importance.
As a member of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, EV71 has a positive-stranded RNA genome coding for a 2,194 amino acid polyprotein, which is subsequently processed into four structural (VP1-VP4) and seven non-structural (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D) proteins. Identifying the specific functions of these proteins and their interactions with host factors will provide crucial information regarding EV71-associated neural pathogenesis and viral replication.
GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibodies for EV71 research. Please see the highlighted antibodies below.

Figure 2. The EV71 genome codes for a single polyprotein that is processed into 11 mature proteins.

Featured Products

Recombinant Citation-Support Orthogonal Validation Protein Overexpression

Enterovirus 71 3AB antibody (GTX132344)

IHC-P analysis detecting expression of EV71 3AB protein in an EV71 infected mouse skeletal muscle tissue section.

Enterovirus 71 2B antibody (GTX132343)

IHC-P analysis detecting expression of EV71 2B protein in an EV71 infected mouse skeletal muscle tissue section.

EV71 VP1 antibody (GTX132338)

IHC-P analysis detecting expression of EV71 VP1 protein in an EV71 infected mouse skeletal muscle tissue section.

Enterovirus 71 antibody (GTX124261)

WB analysis of EV71 proteins in RD cells infected with EV71 virus C2 or B4 strain.

Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody (GTX132339)

WB analysis of EV71 VP1 protein in RD cells infected with EV71 virus C2 or B4 strain.

Enterovirus 71 3C antibody [B3] (GTX630191)

WB analysis of EV71 3C protein in RD cells infected with EV71 or EV D68 virus.

Cat. No. Product Name Host & Clonality Applications
GTX132340 Enterovirus 71 VP2 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P Citation-Support Orthogonal Validation
GTX132341 Enterovirus 71 VP3 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF Citation-Support
GTX637687 Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody [HL1928] Rec Rb mAb WB, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA Recombinant Orthogonal Validation
GTX637688 Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody [HL1929] Rec Rb mAb WB, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA Recombinant Orthogonal Validation
GTX633390 Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody [GT185] Ms mAb WB, ELISA Citation-Support Orthogonal Validation
GTX633583 Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody [GT9512] Ms mAb WB, ELISA
GTX132338 Enterovirus 71 VP1 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P Citation-Support