Genetex COVID-19

Research Solutions for Coronavirus – Genetex

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

GeneTex offers a comprehensive catalog of outstanding antibodies and reagents for SARS-CoV-2 research. Antibody clones [HL13402], [HL1014], and [1A9] in particular exhibit high affinity for all SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, including those of the 501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7) and 501Y.V2 (B.1.351) variants. Recombinant rabbit clone [HL13402], raised against the viral spike S1 subunit, performs exceptionally well when paired with the widely published mouse clone [1A9] (against the S2 subunit) for sandwich ELISA assays. GeneTex’s large collection of spike antibodies virtually guarantees that you will find a reagent appropriate for your desired application. Although there is high homology between different regions of the nucleocapsid proteins from MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, several of GeneTex’s SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies detect only SARS-CoV-2. All recombinant nucleocapsid clones display high affinity for human cell-expressed full-length SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, with EC50 values ranging from 0.006-0.074 nM. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid recombinant antibody pair (GTX635689 and GTX635686) demonstrates superior sensitivity for sandwich ELISA and lateral flow assays. As with the spike antibody catalog, GeneTex’s extensive nucleocapsid antibody listing includes products ideal for all common applications.

GeneTex is using indirect ELISA assays to rigorously test the affinities of several of its spike antibodies for recombinant variant spike (ECD) proteins. Please see the chart below documenting current progress.

Product Highlights

On 26 November 2021, the WHO designated the SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.529 to be the fifth Variant of Concern (VOC) and assigned it the name “Omicron”. This variant has more than thirty changes in the spike protein with fifteen point mutations in the RBD, including several found in other VOCs linked to increased transmissibility and blocking antibody evasion. Omicron probably originated in southern Africa but is now known to be in many countries. Recognition of this variant has been facilitated due to “S gene dropout”, meaning that one of the three PCR target genes is not detected.

Spike mutation sites found in Omicron are:
A67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D/Δ143-145, Δ211/L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493K, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981F

GeneTex has a wide range of antibodies whose immunogens do not contain any Omicron mutation sites, thus making them ideal reagents for studies of this variant. Please see the images below identifying several of these products.

Highlighted Antibodies

GeneTex antibodies that may detect the Omicron VOC spike protein based on immunogen sequence analysis:

 

Product Name Clonality Applications Cat. No.
Spike RBD antibody [HL257] Rb RecAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, ELISA, IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX635692
Spike S1 antibody [HL1] Rb RecAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA GTX635656
Spike S2 antibody [HL237] Rb RecAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA, IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX635693
Spike antibody [1A9] Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, IP, ELISA, EM, Sandwich ELISA, IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX632604
Spike antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA GTX135360
Spike RBD antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF GTX135385
Spike S2 / S2’ antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, Sandwich ELISA GTX135386

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody

(GTX135357)

SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ORF7a antibody [3C9]

(GTX632602)

SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 antibody [5A10]

(GTX632696)

TMPRSS2 antibody [N2C3]

(GTX100743)

SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [1A9]

(GTX632604)

SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [6H3]

(GTX632269)

ACE2 antibody [N1N2], N-term

(GTX101395)

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody

(GTX135356)

Additional Antibodies

Product Name Code
ACE2 antibody GTX135404
ACE2 antibody GTX15349
ACE2 antibody [SN0754] Rabbit Monoclonal GTX01160
TMPRSS2 antibody GTX64544
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody GTX135361
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody GTX135570
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL146] GTX635680
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL249] GTX635678
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [HL344] GTX635679
SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [CR3022] GTX01555
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike antibody GTX135384
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike antibody GTX135385
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike antibody GTX135386
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody GTX135360
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL1] GTX635656
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL134] GTX635671
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL263] GTX635672
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL6] GTX635654
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [GT263] GTX635708
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 antibody [HL13402] GTX635713
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 antibody [HL237] GTX635693
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD antibody GTX135709
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD antibody [HL1003] GTX635792
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD antibody [HL1004] GTX635793
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD antibody [HL1014] GTX635807
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD antibody [HL257] GTX635692
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) RdRp (nsp12) antibody GTX135467
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) RdRp (nsp12) antibody GTX135469
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nsp1 antibody GTX135586
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nsp1 antibody GTX135612
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ORF8 antibody GTX135591
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) PLpro (nsp3) antibody GTX135589
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) PLpro (nsp3) antibody GTX135614

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein

(GTX135357-pro)

Human ACE2 protein (active)

(GTX01179-pro)

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 protein, His and Avi tag (active)

(GTX01548-pro)

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD protein, His tag (active)

(GTX01546-pro)

Additional Proteins

Product Name Code
Human ACE2 protein, His and Avi tag GTX01550-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope protein, His and Avi tag GTX01547-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Protein, GST and His Tag GTX01565-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike (D614G variant) protein, His tag GTX02575-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 protein, His tag (active) GTX01554-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 protein, His tag (active) GTX135817-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 (ECD) protein, human IgG Fc tag GTX01559-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein GTX135592-pro
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) 3CLpro (nsp5) protein, His and Avi tag GTX01557-pro
Product Name Sensitivity Applications Code
Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit 18 pg/ml ELISA, Sandwich ELISA GTX535824
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit 1.8 pg/ml ELISA, Sandwich ELISA GTX536267

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit

The GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit (GTX535824) is a ready-to-use in vitro assay for the quantitative measurement of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. It allows highly specific, ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 N protein with an average lowest detection limit of 18 pg/ml (Figure 1). The assay can be completed in less than four hours.

GTX535824

Figure 1. GeneTex’s SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit demonstrates superior sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein compared to a competitor’s kit.

 

A key feature of this kit is a low background when testing plasma samples and a significantly decreased rate of false positives (Table 1). In addition, the optimized reaction formula generates a reliable recovery value for plasma samples, highlighting this kit’s outstanding performance when compared to similar products on the market (Table 2).

 

table1

Table 1. GeneTex’s SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit produces very low noise signal for control plasma samples.

 

table2

Table 2. GeneTex’s SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit generates a reliable recovery value* for human plasma compared to a competitor’s kit.

* The recovery rate is utilized to determine the differences in percent recovery between samples and standard diluent. The ideal recovery rate is 100%.

 

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) N protein is abundantly expressed during infection. It is one of four viral structural proteins, and binds the virus’s genomic RNA to form a helical ribonucleocapsid complex. N protein functions in viral genome protection, replication, virion assembly, and immune evasion. Through scrupulous design, production, and stringent testing, GeneTex has successfully developed a panel of recombinant monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid protein and other antigens. The GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Protein Sandwich ELISA Kit (GTX535824) is composed of an antibody pair carefully selected to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio for nucleocapsid detection in various sample types. This product represents another important addition to GeneTex’s growing catalog of SARS-CoV-2 reagents created to accelerate your COVID-19 research.

This kit is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

Product Name Code
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike ELISA Pair – set [1A9 / HL6] GTX500040
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike ELISA Pair set – [1A9 / HL263] GTX500041
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid ELISA Pair [HL5410 / HL455-MS] GTX500042
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid ELISA Pair [HL5511 / HL448] GTX500045
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike ELISA Pair [1A9 / HL13402] GTX500043
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD ELISA Pair [HL1014 / HL1003] GTX500046
Product Name Code
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 overexpression 293T whole cell lysate GTX535663
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike overexpression 293T whole cell lysate GTX535664
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid overexpression 293T whole cell lysate GTX535665
MERS-CoV Spike overexpression 293T whole cell lysate GTX535667
SARS-CoV Spike overexpression 293T whole cell lysate GTX535668

SARS-CoV-2 proteins FFPE cell blocks

Product Name Code
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435640
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435643
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435644
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435641
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435642
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane FFPE Cell Pellet Block HEK 293 GTX435645

There are multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants currently spreading across the planet, with four of them being designated “Variants of Concern” (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Several nomenclature systems for these variants exist, and the Greek alphabet designation introduced by WHO is the latest (Table 1). All four of these viruses have mutations (~seventeen to twenty-three) at different points in their genomes, with eight to eleven of these alterations occurring in their respective spike proteins (all have D614G, Figure 1). At this point, most experts think the present vaccines will have efficacy against these variants though there is some unease among scientists and physicians about increased transmissibility and virulence, particularly in regions with low vaccination rates. As the greatest interest has focused on the spike mutations, we offer the following images to illustrate their location in these genomes.

WHO labelPango lineageGISAID clade/lineageNextstrain cladeEarliest documented samples
AlphaB.1.1.7GRY (formerly GR/501Y.V1)20I/S:501Y.V1United Kingdom
BetaB.1.351GH/501Y.V220H/S:501Y.V2South Africa
GammaP.1GR/501Y.V320J/S:501Y.V3Brazil
DeltaB.1.617.2G/452R.V321A/S:478KIndia

Table 1. VOC Nomenclature

Figure 1. Identified Mutations in VOC Spike Proteins

B.1.617.2 (SARS-CoV-2 Delta)

B.1.617 was first detected in Maharashtra, India in December 2020. There are three sublineages categorized, with B.1.617.2/Delta being designated a VOC due to reports that it is now dominant in many countries, including India and the UK. The B.1.617.2 variant carries ten mutations in spike protein and may be more resistant to neutralization by vaccines and certain monoclonal antibody therapies.
GeneTex is now developing reagents to support research into these SARS-CoV-2 variants, beginning with recombinant spike/RBD proteins that include many of these key mutations.

 

B.1.1.7 (SARS-CoV-2 Alpha)

In late 2020, the United Kingdom reported the B.1.1.7 variant (aka 20I/501Y.V1) that appears to be significantly more transmissible and perhaps more virulent. At this point, it has been identified in at least sixty-two countries. Eight of its twenty-three mutations are in the spike protein, with N501Y in the receptor binding domain (RBD) being of most concern as it may be involved in increased ACE2 affinity.

 

B.1.351 (SARS-CoV-2 Beta)

In January of 2021, the B.1.351 variant (aka 20H/501Y.V2) was found in South Africa. It has twenty-one mutations, with eight being in the spike protein. As with the other two variants, it includes the N501Y mutation but also has two additional RBD mutations (E484K, K417N). It appears to be more transmissible, and the E484K mutation is worrisome as it was shown to reduce antibody recognition. Like the UK variant, it has spread to other countries (at least twenty).

 

P.1 (SARS-CoV-2 Gamma)

Near the end of January 2021, Japanese authorities reported a new SARS-CoV-2 virus variant obtained from four Brazilian travelers. This variant is designated P.1 (aka 20J/501Y.V3) and has seventeen mutations, with eleven in spike. Some evidence suggests that this variant may also be more transmissible and have some immune escape capability. It carries the same three RBD mutations seen in the South Africa variant, and has been found in other countries.

B.1.617.2 (Delta) Spike Proteins

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
GTX136332-pro Spike RBD B.1.617.2 (Delta) L452R, T478K Mutant Protein, His tag (active)
GTX136299-pro RBD B.1.617.1 (Kappa) L452R, E484Q Mutant protein, His tag (active)
GTX136333-pro RBD AY.1 (Delta plus)K417N, L452R, T478K, Mutant Protein His tag
In Production Spike T19R, G142D, del156-157, R158G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N) (ECD) Protein, His tag (active)

B.1.1.7 (Alpha) Spike Proteins

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
GTX136059-pro Spike del69-70, del144, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H,T716I, S982A, D1118H (ECD) Protein, His tag (active)
GTX136014-pro Spike RBD N501Y Mutant protein, His tag (active)
GTX136058-pro Spike RBD E484K, N501Y Mutant protein, His tag (active)
GTX136023-pro Spike S2 T716I, S982A, D1118H Mutant (ECD) protein, His tag
GTX136085-pro Spike S1 del69-70, del144, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H Mutant protein, His tag

B.1.351 (Beta) Spike Proteins

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
GTX136061-pro Spike L18F, D80A, D215G, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V Mutant (ECD) protein, His tag
GTX136022-pro Spike RBD K417N, E484K, N501Y Mutant protein, His tag (active)
GTX136095-pro Spike S1 L18F, D80A,…, R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, His tag (active)

P.1 (Gamma) Spike Proteins

Catalogue Antigen Mutation
GTX136091-pro Spike (L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I, V1176F Mutant) (ECD) protein, His tag
GTX136043-pro Spike RBD Spike RBD (K417T, E484K, N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active)
GTX136094-pro Spike S1 Spike S1 (L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G Mutant) protein, His tag

RBD of the South Africa variant (501Y.V2 / B.1.351)

GTX136022-pro

RBD of the UK variant (501Y.V1 / B.1.1.7)

GTX136014-pro

Spike RBD (K417T, E484K, N501Y Mutant) Brazil variant
GTX136043-pro

GeneTex is using indirect ELISA assays to rigorously test the affinities of several of its spike antibodies for recombinant variant spike (ECD) proteins.

Targeted Region of Spike Antibody Cat. No. Clone WIV04/2019 (reference sequence) B.1.1.7 B.1.351 P.1 B.1.617.2
RBD GTX635807 HL1014
RBD GTX635792 HL1013
RBD GTX635793 HL1004
S1 GTX635713 HL13402
S1 GTX635708 GT263 X X X N/A
S2 GTX632604 1A9 N/A
S2 GTX635693 HL237 X N/A
N GTX635689 HL5511 N/A N/A N/A
N GTX635686 HL44 N/A N/A N/A
N GTX635685 HL5410 N/A N/A N/A

X

N/A

Strong reaction. Defined as OD450 value >1 when 1μg/ml protein was used.

Weak reaction. Defined as OD450 value >1 when 4μg/ml protein was used.

No reaction. Defined as OD450 value <1 when 4μg/ml protein was used.

Not performed.

A neutralizing RBD antibody for all four variants!

Neutralizing Spike RBD antibody [HL1002] GTX635692

Rabbit Monoclonal

Inhibition analysis tested

Inhibits RBD protein binding to human ACE2.

– WT

– 2 UK variants

– South Africa variant

– Brazil variant

RBD ACE2 Binding Activity / Neutralization Assay Panel (GTX300122)

A handy panel to set up neutralization assay for neutralizing antibodies detection and inhibitory activity of test factors (e.g., small compounds).

  • 5 SARS-CoV-2 RBD proteins are provided, including four current major variants
  • Human ACE2 protein
  • Recombinant proteins are expressed by HEK 293
  • A control neutralizing antibody is provided
Panel Product Content Note Application Package
GTX135683-pro Human ACE2 (ECD) protein, mouse IgG Fc tag (active) ELISA, Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX136014-pro Spike RBD (N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active) UK Variant ELISA, Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX136022-pro Spike RBD (K417N, E484K, N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active) South Africa variant ELISA, Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX136043-pro Spike RBD (K417T, E484K, N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active) Brazil variant Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX136058-pro Spike RBD (E484K, N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active) UK variant (B.1.1.7 with E484K) Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX136090-pro Spike RBD protein, His tag (active) Wild-type Functional Assay 25 μg
GTX635791 Spike RBD antibody [HL1002] Neutralizing/Inhibition 100 μl
Antibody Pair Product Name Clonality EC50 Code
Pair I Nucleocapsid antibody [HL5511] Rb recAb 14 pM GTX635689
Nucleocapsid antibody [HL448] Rb recAb 11 pM GTX635686
Pair II Nucleocapsid antibody [HL5410] Rb recAb 9 pM GTX635685
Nucleocapsid antibody [HL455] Rb recAb 6 pM GTX635688
Product Name Applications Code
Spike FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435640
Spike S1 FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435643
Spike S2 FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435644
Nucleocapsid FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435641
Envelope FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435642
Membrane FFPE 293T cell pellet block IHC-P (cell pellet) GTX435645
Product Name Applications Code
Spike overexpression 293T whole cell lysate WB, ELISA GTX535664
Spike S1 overexpression 293T whole cell lysate WB GTX535663
Nucleocapsid overexpression 293T whole cell lysate WB, ELISA GTX535665
Product Name Clonality or
Expression System
Applications Code
ACE2 antibody [GT19410] Ms mAb IHC-P, ELISA GTX635897
ACE2 antibody [N1N2], N-term Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, ELISA GTX101395
ACE2 antibody [SN0754] Rb recAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P GTX01160
ACE2 antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, ELISA GTX15349
Human ACE2(ECD) protein, mouse IgG Fc tag HEK 293 WB, ELISA, Functional Assay GTX135683-pro
Human ACE2 protein, His and Avi tag HEK 293 ELISA GTX01550-pro
TMPRSS2 antibody [N2C3] Rb pAb WB, IHC-P GTX100743
Camostat mesylate TMPRSS2 inhibitor GTX01523

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that causes the potentially lethal COVID-19 respiratory tract infection.
This new virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, which also includes SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

SARS-CoV-2 morphology

Components of the viral envelope:

1.Spike (S) protein:

  • A large transmembrane protein that project from the virion surface (140 kDa). Forms a trimeric protein.
  • Has multiple potential glycosylation sites, highly glycosylated. (180 kDa)
  • Can be cleaved to 2 subunits, the amino-terminal S1 and the carboxy-terminal S2. The S1 domain is the most divergent region of the molecule, and S2 is more conserved.
  • The receptor-binding domains (RBDs) are shown in S1, which mediates viral entry.

2.Membrane (M) protein:

  • The most abundant constituent of coronaviruses.
  • M proteins within each coronavirus group are moderately well conserved.

3.Envelope (E) protein:

  • A small polypeptide of around 10 kDa.
  • A minor component of virion.

Structural protein inside the virion:

1.Nucleocapsid (N) protein:

  • Wraps RNA genome and forms a threadlike helical structure.
  • Phosphorylation may related to virion assembly.
  • Molecular weight: 46 kDa

SARS-CoV-2 viral entry

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, as it is for SARS-CoV.
  • TMPRSS2, a serine protease, is a critical factor in the priming of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This is an essential step for viral entry into host cells through fusion of the viral and cellular membranes.
  • A serine protease inhibitor camostat mesylate is able to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung cells.

The SARS-CoV-2 has a ~29.9 kilobase positive-sense RNA genome that contains as many as 29 open reading frames. Though the exact number of functional proteins remains to be established, there are at least 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp), four structural proteins, and at least six or seven accessory proteins. Based on previous work with SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses, scientists have identified functions for the majority of these factors, though work is ongoing. A schematic of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is shown in the figure above, while the known or hypothesized functions of the viral proteins, based on studies of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses, are summarized below in Table 1.

GeneTex is proud to offer an extensive line of reagents to support the study of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Please see Table 2 and Table 3 below to view listings of GeneTex’s antibodies and recombinant proteins available now to accelerate your SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 research.

Table 1. Putative Functions of SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

ProteinFunctionsReferences
Spike (S)Spike full-length (~1273 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) protein precursor is cleaved into glycosylated subunits, S1 and S2 (S2’). S1 binds to the host’s receptor, ACE2, while S2 mediates viral and host membrane fusion.1
Nucleocapsid (N)Nucleocapsid (~419 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) binds viral genomic RNA and forms a helical ribonucleocapsid. Involved in genome protection, viral RNA replication, virion assembly, and immune evasion. Interacts with M and nsp3 proteins.2
Membrane (M)Membrane/matrix protein (~222 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is the most abundant structural component of the virion, and very conserved. Mediates assembly and budding of viral particles through recruitment of other structural proteins to “ER-Golgi-intermediate compartment (ERGIC)”. Interaction with N for RNA packaging into virion. Interacts with accessory proteins 3a and 7a. Mitigation of immune response?3
Envelope (E)Envelope small membrane protein (~75 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a single-pass type III membrane protein involved in viral assembly, budding, and pathogenesis. Localizes to ERGIC. Forms a homopentameric ion channel and is a viroporin. Interacts with M, N, 3a, and 7a.4
nsp1Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1; ~180 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) likely inhibits host translation by interacting with 40S ribosomal subunit, leading to host mRNA degradation through cleavage near their 5’UTRs. Promotes viral gene expression and immunoevasion in part by interfering with interferon-mediated signaling.5
nsp2nsp2 (~638 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) interacts with host factors prohibitin 1 and prohibitin 2, which are involved in many cellular processes including mitochondrial biogenesis. It appears that nsp2 may change the intracellular milieu and perturb host intracellular signaling.6
nsp3nsp3 (~1945 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a papain-like protease (PLpro) and multi-pass membrane protein that processes the viral polyprotein to release nsp1, nsp2, and nsp3. It also exhibits deubiquitinating and deISGylating activities. Interacts with nsp4 and nsp6.7
nsp4nsp4 (~500 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is required for viral replication by inducing (with nsp3) assembly of, and localizing to, double-membrane cytoplasmic vesicles. Multi-pass membrane protein.8
nsp5nsp5 (3CLpro; ~306 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) cleaves at 11 sites in the polyprotein to release nsp4-nsp16. It is also responsible for nsp maturation.9
nsp6nsp6 (~290 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a multi-pass membrane protein that induces double-membrane vesicles in infected cells with nsp 3 and nsp4. It also limits autophagosome expansion and interferes with autophagosome delivery of viral factors to lysosomes for destruction.10,11
nsp7nsp7 (~83 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) forms a hexadecamer with nsp8 as a cofactor for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12. May have processivity or RNA primase function.12
nsp8nsp8 (~198 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 as a cofactor for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12. May have processivity or RNA primase function. Mutation of certain residues in nsp8 is lethal to SARS-CoV by impacting RNA synthesis.13
nsp9nsp9 (~113 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) functions in viral replication as a dimeric ssRNA-binding protein.13
nsp10nsp10 (~139 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) forms a dodecamer and interacts with both nsp14 and nsp16 to stimulate their respective 3’-5’ exoribonuclease and 2’-O-methyltransferase activities in the formation of the viral mRNA capping machinery.13
nsp11nsp11 (~13-23 a.a., depending on the CoV species) is a pp1a cleavage product at the nsp10/11 boundary. For pp1ab, it is a frameshift product that becomes the N-terminal of nsp12. Its function, if any, is unknown.13
nsp12nsp12 (~932 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) performing both replication and transcription of the viral genome. It has >95% identity to the SARS-CoV polymerase and is inhibited by the nucleoside analogue Remdesivir.13
nsp13nsp13 (~601 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a multifunctional superfamily 1 helicase capable of using both dsDNA and dsRNA as substrates with 5’-3’ polarity. In addition to working with nsp12 in viral genome replication, it is also involved in viral mRNA capping. It associates with nucleoprotein in membranous complexes.14
nsp14nsp14 (~527 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) has both 3’-5’ exoribonuclease (proofreading during RNA replication) and N7-guanine methyltransferase (viral mRNA capping) activities. Interacts with nsp10.13
nsp15nsp15 (~346 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is an endoribonuclease that favors cleavage of RNA at the 3’-ends of uridylates. Loss of nsp15 affects both viral replication and pathogenesis. It is also required for evasion of host cell dsRNA sensors.15
nsp16nsp16 (~298 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) interacts with and is activated by nsp10. Its 2’-O-methyltransferase activity is essential for viral mRNA capping. It may also work against host cell antiviral sensors.13
ORF3aORF3a (~275 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a multi-pass membrane protein that forms a homotetrameric viroporin in SARS-CoV. It interacts with accessory protein 7a, M, S and E. May be involved in viral release. Importantly, it also activates both NF-kB and NLRP3 inflammasome and contributes to the generation of cytokine storm.16
ORF6ORF6 (~61 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) appears to be a virulence factor in SARS-CoV. It was shown to be an antagonist of type I interferons (IFNs) and is involved in viral escape from the host innate immune system.17
ORF7aORF7a (~121 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a type I membrane protein that interacts with bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) in SARS-CoV. BST-2 tethers virions to the host’s plasma membrane. ORF7a binding inhibits BST-2 glycosylation and interferes with this restriction activity. ORF7a also interacts with S, M, E, and ORF3a in SARS-CoV.18
ORF7bORF7b (~43 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is a type III integral transmembrane protein in the Golgi apparatus. In SARS-CoV, it appears to be a viral attenuation factor.19
ORF8ORF8 (~121 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) has only 30% identity to the intact ORF8 of SARS-CoV and might be a luminal ER membrane-associated protein. It may trigger ATF6 activation and affect the unfolded protein response (UPR).20,21,22
ORF9bORF9b (~97 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) is coded for in an alternative ORF within the N gene. No function is known, though the SARS-CoV protein interacts with nsp5, nsp14, and ORF6. There is limited evidence it may bind to lipids.23
ORF10ORF10 (~38 a.a. in SARS-CoV-2) has no known function but might have a regulatory role involving interaction with another factor(s).24
ProteinFunctionsReferences

Table 2. Antibodies for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Research

Cat. No. Product Name Clonality Applicatoins
GTX632604 SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody [1A9] Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF, FACS
GTX632269 SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody [6H3] Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, sELISA
GTX632696 SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 antibody [5A10] Ms mAb WB
GTX632602 SARS-CoV / SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ORF7a antibody [3C9] Ms mAb WB, ICC/IF
GTX135356 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA
GTX135360 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spike antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA
GTX135357 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA
GTX135361 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) nucleocapsid antibody Rb pAb WB, ICC/IF, ELISA, sELISA
GTX101395 ACE2 antibody [N1N2], N-term Rb pAb WB, IHC-P, FACS
GTX100743 TMPRSS2 antibody [N2C3] Rb pAb WB

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