Cell Biology

Cell biology is the study of cell structure and function. This includes the most general properties shared by all cells to the specific, highly complex functions unique to specialized cells.

There are an array of research subspecialties within the cell biology field. One is the study of cell energy and the biochemical mechanisms that support cell metabolism. Another focuses on the structure of cell components, known as subcellular compartments or organelles. A third looks at the cell cycle, the progression of cell phases beginning and ending with cell division separated by periods of growth and DNA replication. Finally, there is great interest in the mechanisms associated with cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Defining how the molecular mechanisms characteristic of one of these fields influences the others allows scientists to analyze cellular behaviors in more complex ways.

The cell cycle is an ordered set of events by which cells undertake growth and division into two daughter cells. In eukaryotes, the cell cycle is described by five phases: G0, G1, S, G2, and M. In G0 phase, cells have entered a quiescent state or are not dividing. During G1 period, the cells grow and accumulate nutrients for the subsequent S phase, where DNA replication occurs. The gap between S and M phases is termed G2 period, during which the cells continue to grow and prepare for mitosis that occurs in M phase. All these processes are elaborately controlled to ensure proper cell development and renewal. The key molecules that program cell cycle are cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), whereas inhibitors that prevent improper cell division are two families of genes, the Cip / Kip family and the INK4 family. Notably, these inhibitor genes are also termed tumor suppressor genes as they are instrumental in the prevention of tumor formation.

Highlighted Products


CDK5 antibody [C2C3],

p21 Cip1 antibody [GT1032]

Cyclin D1 antibody

gamma Tubulin antibody

Aurora A antibody [C3], C-term

Aurora B antibody

Cell death occurs when a cell is no longer able to sustain essential life functions. Cells can die through one of several biochemically distinct pathways, with apoptosis and necrosis being the two most commonly studied mechanisms. While the term “autophagic cell death” would suggest death by autophagy, this form of cell killing occurs only in specific cases, as autophagy is generally considered a pro-survival process. Aside from these three modalities, other forms of cell death described by terms such as “mitotic catastrophe” or “excitotoxicity” are present in the literature. However, more research will have to be done to determine whether these and other named processes truly represent distinct death pathways.


Caspase 3 antibody (GTX110543)


Annexin V antibody (GTX103250)


Bad antibody (GTX130108)


C Reactive Protein antibody (GTX101262)

LDHA antibody (GTX101416)

HMGB1 antibody (GTX101277)


LC3B antibody


SQSTM1 antibody (GTX629890)


Beclin 1 antibody (GTX133555)


Apoptosis is programmed cell death and is crucial for development and tissue homeostasis. It can be initiated by various stimuli and can progress through a receptor-mediated extrinsic pathway or an intrinsic pathway that starts with mitochondrial events. Both processes involve the activation of caspases. Apoptotic cells undergo distinct changes in cell morphology such as cell rounding, plasma membrane blebbing, and nuclear fragmentation. A spectrum of key players is involved, including transcription factors such as the tumor suppressor p53 and FOXO3a that drive expression of pro-apoptotic genes, effectors such as Caspase 3 and ROCK1, and factors like PARP and AIF that function in a caspase-independent pathway.


Highlighted Products

p53 antibody

Caspase 3 antibody

Caspase 8 antibody

Caspase 7 antibody

CDKN2A / p14ARF antibody

TNF alpha antibody

Autophagy has been implicated in many different diseases, including neurodegeneration, cardiac myopathy, autoimmune disease and cancer. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex and paradoxical. While autophagic deficiency has been shown to promote tumorigenesis in animal models, autophagy may actually support tumor growth by enhancing cancer cell survival in the face of nutrient depletion or accumulation of toxic molecules. GeneTex is proud to introduce our antibodies for autophagy research.


Highlighted Products

LC3B antibody (GTX127375)

mTOR antibody [C3], C-term (GTX101557)

Beclin 1 antibody (GTX133555)

SQSTM1 / P62 antibody [N3C1], Internal

NDP52 antibody  (GTX115378)

HMGB1 antibody (GTX101277)

DFNA5 antibody

Cat No. GTX64590

DFNA5 antibody, N-term

Cat No. GTX81693

DFNA5 antibody, C-term

Cat No. GTX46489

The subcellular location of a protein may suggest potential roles for that factor in one or more cellular processes. Organelle protein-specific antibodies are essential for establishing colocalization of a particular protein of interest with an organelle, thereby contributing crucial insight into its possible function(s). In addition, these organelle marker antibodies can often be used in cell fractionation studies analyzed by western blot alone or after immunoprecipitation.



Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

GRP94 antibody

Calnexin antibody

Grp78 antibody

Golgi Apparatus

GOLPH2 antibody

GOLGA5 antibody

GM130 antibody

Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death process executed by inflammatory caspases upon initiation of canonical or non-canonical mechanisms. It is triggered by specific inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5, -11) that are distinct from those responsible for apoptosis. Both the canonical and non-canonical pathways lead to the activation of gasdermin D (GSDMD), which forms pores that cause cellular leakage and lysis. The canonical sequence involves pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)- and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-mediated inflammasome formation leading to caspase-1 activation, GSDMD cleavage, and IL-1β and IL-18 maturation. The non-canonical string of events is characterized by direct interaction of the other three caspases with Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with subsequent GSDMD activation. The resultant extracellular release of cytoplasmic components unleashes a local inflammatory cascade that can become systemic, underscoring the importance of pyroptosis’ normal function in mobilizing immune cells against pathogens. Nevertheless, pyroptosis can also contribute to inflammation-related pathology, including cancer progression and autoimmune disease.

GeneTex is proud to offer an outstanding selection of antibodies to study pyroptosis and inflammation biology. These antibodies are validated for various applications to facilitate your efforts in this exciting field. Please see the highlighted products below

Highlighted Products

Citation-Support KOKD-Validation Orthogonal Validation Protein Overexpression

Caspase 1 antibody [N1N3] (GTX101322)

TMS1 antibody [N1C3] (GTX102474)

NFkB p65 antibody (GTX107678)

Gasdermin D antibody [N1N3] (GTX116840)

NLRP3 antibody (GTX133569)

IL1 beta antibody (GTX74034)

GeneTex Addresses GPCR Targets with its Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody Production Platform

GeneTex, a multinational antibody manufacturing company, is leveraging its recombinant monoclonal antibody production platform and augmented validation protocols to generate immunological reagents against high-value targets that have historically proven difficult to produce. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of the most notoriously challenging groups, constitute the largest membrane protein superfamily in the human genome with more than 800 genes. These multipass membrane proteins are involved in a myriad of essential functions in normal physiology and in many diseases. Importantly, almost a third of therapeutics in use today are directed against GPCRs, and future drug development will benefit from well-validated antibodies against other GPCRs. Thus, the need for dependable antibodies to study these proteins among scientists in the academic, clinical, and pharmaceutical fields is critical.

As noted above, the development of antibodies specific for individual GPCRs has proven to be technically difficult. Much of the GPCR structure is buried in the cell membrane. In addition, cell expression levels are often quite low for many GPCRs, and identifying an immunoreactive antigen that recapitulates the required conformational structure while also being specific for a particular GPCR can be elusive. Antibody specificity for the targeted GPCR and unambiguous demonstration of performance in experimental applications (e.g., western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry) valued by researchers are equally formidable to establish.

GeneTex is relying on the advantages of its recombinant antibody technology as well as enhanced validation strategies to surmount these obstacles. For production, the recombinant antibody workflow allows the detection of promising clones early in the process and scalability and consistency after the clones are selected. GeneTex’s validation efforts will focus on CRISPR-based knockout (KO) protocols coupled with the implementation of VirDTM-GPCR arrays (developed by CDI Labs, Baltimore, MD), which present a nearly comprehensive library of human non-olfactory GPCRs individually expressed on virion envelopes. These arrays allow the most effective large-scale TM screening mechanism to test the specificity of any human GPCR-binding reagent. Scott Paschke, Vice President at CDI Labs, states, “We are excited to be working with GeneTex on their efforts to produce highly specific GPCR antibodies. CDI’s GPCR VirD arrays are produced by a patented method that expresses the human GPCR protein through the use of an engineered HSV-1 virus. This system yields a recombinant human GPCR protein embedded in a human membrane to ensure correct folding. The VirD system is a perfect tool for assaying GPCR antibody specificity.”

These efforts by GeneTex have already produced new antibodies for two important GPCRs. The first is the new D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) antibody (GTX636952) that targets one of the five GPCRs responsible for dopamine signaling in humans. DRD2 is particularly significant as the target of drugs used to treat psychoses and Parkinson’s disease. GeneTex’s recombinant antibody is validated using comparable antibodies, differential tissue expression, and the VirDTM-GPCR array in the process of affirming its use in several applications. The array data was remarkable for a distinct signal for DRD2 but not for DRD3, DRD5, or any other GPCR or membrane protein on the array, which argues that the antibody is specific for DRD2. A second recombinant antibody for retinoic acid-induced protein 3 (RAI3/GPRC5A) (GTX637589), which may be a prognostic marker for several major human malignancies, was validated using CRISPR KO, tissue staining, and differential cell line expression.


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