For over 30 years, PBL Assay Science has had a mission to help ‘solve the most difficult problems’ of researchers around the world. From its founding in 1990 and continuing through today, PBL has become widely known as a source for high-quality immunoassay kits, cytokines and interferons, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and other related reagents for life science researchers. PBL products can provide reliable and consistent solutions for all your Assay Science needs.

Product Categories


Singleplex ELISAs: PBL’s ELISA kits are a comprehensive range of heterogeneous antibody sandwich immunoassays. The detection system utilizes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) as the enzyme-substrate which provides sensitive and robust assays for the detection and quantification of interferons and cytokines.


Multiplex ELISAs: Fully quantitative high throughput multiplex ELISA kits that provide simultaneous quantification and detection of up to 16 different analytes from a single sample.


Interferons: PBL offers a wide range of interferons from different species and of different classes including multiple IFN-alpha and IFN-beta subtypes. Our interferons are high purity, provide consistent performance and biological activity and are suitable for use in a range of research applications.


Cytokines: Cytokines are a class of signaling proteins that play a role in both the induction and effector phases of all immune and inflammatory responses, including cell proliferation, intercellular communication, and cell death. Cytokines are produced by a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types and can exert autocrine and paracrine effects. They are related more correctly to hormones than to growth factors in their overall functions, but many cytokines also exhibit growth factor activity.


Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies: PBL offers a range of both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against different interferons (IFNs) from various mammalian species. As opposed to other commercially available Anti-IFN antibodies, PBL’s human IFN alpha antibodies are tested against a wide range of human IFN subtypes

At PBL, we understand the difficulties involved in working with a partner outside of your organization—because it’s something we’ve been doing for 30 years. Whether you have limited internal capacity or whether you’re seeking outside expertise in addressing specific experimental challenges, we know it takes an investment of your time and energy to establish a relationship and bring your projects to completion. But there’s one thing we do know, that’s been proven time and time again: PBL Assay Science is a partner that can take a great burden off your shoulders. We take the time to listen, to understand what you want to accomplish; we provide guidance from our deep knowledge base; we recommend only the work that your research requires; and we do all of this under the utmost confidentiality.

We don’t just run immunoassays and spit out results—we can be your ‘Thought Partner’. We can do the work. We can deliver results. Contact Us today to discuss your research needs. For simplified sourcing, we also work with Science Exchange and

Here are some of the services we provide and an analyte selector tool to view immunoassay services available from PBL on different platforms:

Quantitative Immunoassays

  • Ultra-Sensitive Cytokine & Biomarker Quantification
    • Quanterix Simoa®
    • EMD Millipore Single Molecule Counting (SMCxPROTM & Erenna®)
  • Single and Multiplex Assays
    • Meso Scale Discovery® Electrochemiluminescence (MSD-ECL, V-Plex, S-Plex)
    • Single Analyte ELISAs
    • Multiplex Screening ELISAs

Reagent Development Services

  • Protein Production & Purification
  • Antibody Production & Characterization
  • Hybridoma & Cell Line Development
  • Protein & Antibody Labeling

Cell-Based Assay Services

  • Cytokine/Chemokine Bioactivity Assays
    • Proliferation & Anti-Proliferation
    • Cytokine Secretion
  • Antiviral Assays
    • Cytopathic Effect Inhibition (CPE)
    • Neutralizing Antibody

Find out more in the sections below:

PBL can expedite your R&D work as our technologies and services can be tailored to meet your specific requirements under fit-for-purpose guidelines. For many of your sample testing and screening needs, PBL can help you measure your analyte(s) of interest. From state-of-the-art technologies quantifying into the femtogram/milliliter level to simultaneous detection of up to 9 analytes in a single well, PBL offers a multitude of options to fit your project needs.


We understand the value of your experimental samples and execute assays just as you would – consuming a minimum of sample while generating robust results. We can take on work you don’t have the capacity to handle yourself. Let us help you develop, customize, or just execute assays on your samples in a timely, professional manner.


Here are some of the services we provide and an analyte selector tool to view immunoassay services available from PBL on different platforms:


    • Ultra-Sensitive Cytokine & Biomarker Quantification
      • Quanterix Simoa®
      • EMD Millipore Single Molecule Counting (SMCxPRO® & Erenna®)


  • Single and Multiplex Immunoassays
    • Meso Scale Discovery® Electrochemiluminescence (MSD-ECL, V-Plex, S-Plex)
    • Single Analyte ELISAs
    • Multiplex Screening ELISAs

Quanterix Simoa®

High precision. Unprecedented sensitivity. Digital readout. Take your detection to the next level.


  • Single Molecule Array technology delivers femtogram per milliliter (fg/ml) level sensitivity for measurement of low abundance biomarkers in serum, plasma, and other matrices
  • Unique technology provides robust detection for single analytes and select multiplex panel options
  • High precision service offers accurate and reproducible data with < 10% inter- and intra-assay CVs
  • Over 50 analytes available including IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-23, IP-10, TRAIL, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, Aβ-40, Aβ-42, Tau, and NF-LIGHT®

The unique immunoassay technology provided by the Simoa® platform allows PBL to deliver fg/ml level sensitivity for low abundance biomarkers in serum, plasma, and other matrices. Single Molecule Array technology traps a single bead in a femtoliter-sized well allowing for “digital” measurement of each bead. This approach can increase assay sensitivities several orders of magnitude over conventional bioassays.


The combination of this instrument’s markedly heightened sensitivity and its’ capacity for digital analyte measurement ensures accuracy and precision across a wide dynamic range and minimizes sample volume requirements.


Figure 1. Quanterix Simoa® Technology Overview

Quanterix Simoa Technology Overview

Unprecedented precision can be obtained using Simoa’s “digital” readings of single molecular events. In the image above, individual paramagnetic beads are trapped in femtoliter-sized wells, then sealed over and quantified by SIMOA image analysis.

EMD Millipore Single Molecule Counting (SMCxPRO® & Erenna®)

Accurate and robust measurement. Increase your understanding. Detect at unprecedented levels.


  • Cytokine analysis utilizing Single Molecule Counting technology enables sub-pg/ml sensitivity for accurate measurement of low abundance biomarkers in normal or disease sera/plasma
  • Minimal sample dilution requirement with 4-Log+ dynamic range
  • High precision cytokine immunoassays provide reproducible data
  • Extensive analyte menu of over 40 different cytokine assays covering several disease areas including IFN-γ, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17 heterodimer, IL-23, GLP-1, and TNF-α

The ability to accurately measure low-abundance analytes present in complex matrices is essential for the profiling and characterization of cytokines and other biomarker analytes. Employing proprietary single molecule counting technology with robust microparticle-based SMCxPRO® & Erenna® immunoassays, PBL’s cytokine detection services can provide scientists with sub-pg/ml level measurements of low-abundance analytes in healthy or disease sera and plasma.


An increased understanding of the role and regulation of cytokines in disease states results from greater profiling and characterization of their activities in biological responses. Singulex technology can be instrumental in furthering our collective understanding of low-abundance cytokines in complex matrices.


Figure 2. EMD Millipore Single Molecule Counting Technology Overview

Singulex Erenna Technology Overview

Low abundance biomarkers in complex biological samples are transferred to a 96-well plate and incubated with capture antibody-coated microparticles. After washing and incubating with dye-labeled detection antibodes, wells are again washed to remove unbound detection antibodies. An elution buffer is added, and the eluate drawn into the instrument for single-molecule counting.

Meso Scale Discovery® Electrochemiluminescence (MSD-ECL)

Broad dynamic range. Minimal background. High sensitivity. Enhanced signal capture achieved through luminescent detection.


  • Ability to target low analyte levels in small sample volumes
  • Robust matrix tolerance including serum, plasma, and TCM, as well as various complex biological matrices
  • Measure high and low abundance analytes (normal and elevated levels) within the same sample with 5-Log+ dynamic range
  • Over 180 validated fit-for-purpose singleplex and preconfigured multiplex panel ELISAs available with excellent performance specifications and lot-to-lot consistency

PBL offers high precision protein quantification services for biomarker detection in a broad range of sample matrices for Human, Non-Human Primate (NHP), Mouse, Rat, and Canine samples. PBL utilizes MSD’s validated assay kits (V-Plex) to quantify up to 54 analytes within a single sample. This enables simultaneous comparison of the expression of pertinent cytokines, chemokines, and other biomarkers in samples from diseased and normal patients at different intervals.


Multiplex immunoassays on the MSD platform maintain the sensitivity and performance offered by singleplex ELISAs while providing additional benefits such as cost-savings and targeting of several related analytes in a single sample. The ability to quantify compatible analytes while requiring no more than 25 μl of neat sample ensures efficient use of precious sample.

Figure 3. MSD-ECL Technology Overview

Meso Scale Discovery ECL Technology Overview

Unique detection technology utilizes SULFO-TAGTM labels which emit light upon electrochemical stimulation. The intensity of light generated is captured via CCD camera and pixel intensities quantified. This system provides the basis for achieving measurement of a several log range of biomarker expression levels in a variety of matrices.

Single Analyte ELISA Service

Sensitive detection and robust results. Dedicated, flexible workforce. Reliable, high-quality outcomes.


Take advantage of PBL ELISAs or other commercial ELISAs for a wide range of additional analytes using PBL’s services.



  • High sensitivity ELISAs available for a comprehensive range of species and analytes
  • Compatible with a variety of matrices including serum, plasma, tissue culture media (TCM), and cell lysates
  • Matrix tolerance for autoimmune disease sera*
  • Reproducible results with low intra- and inter-assay CVs

PBL ELISA kits are heterogeneous antibody sandwich immunoassays. The antigen is captured by an antibody immobilized to the wells in a microtiter plate and a secondary antibody is used to complete the sandwich. The detection system which utilizes horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) as the enzyme-substrate provides a sensitive and robust assay for the detection and quantification of interferons and cytokines.


PBL routinely runs ELISA studies for our clients for the detection and differentiation of interferons and cytokines in various sample matrices. We offer a range of heterogeneous immunoassay services for:

  • Human IFN-Alpha*, Beta*, Gamma, Lambda 1/2/3, Omega, Gamma Receptor 1
  • Mouse IFN-Alpha, Beta, Lambda 2/3
  • Cynomolgus/Rhesus IFN-Alpha, Beta
  • Porcine IFN-Alpha


Multiplex Screening Service

High sensitivity & specificity using low sample volumes. Cost-effective quantitation of multiple analytes.


  • Variety of chemokine and cytokine panels already available for human and mouse targets
  • Unique array of analytes including Type I, II & III IFNs, and other key cytokines crucial to innate and adaptive immunity
  • Compatible with autoimmune sera, plasma, and tissue culture media (TCM)
  • Sample volumes of only 50 μl required to quantify all analytes in a single assay
  • Reproducible results with < 15% intra- and inter-assay CVs for most analytes in difficult matrices

PBL’s cost-effective multiplex ELISA services enable simultaneous detection of up to 16 different analytes in a single sample.


These ELISAs provide chemiluminescent results on each analyte and allow for a global understanding of ongoing immune responses in diseases ranging from cancer to autoimmunity. Evaluation of one given inflammatory molecule in the context of several others, repeated measurements of the same cytokine panels in the same subjects under different treatment assay conditions, and reliable detection of different proteins across a broad range of concentrations are just some of the benefits provided by this multiplex service.


Figure 4. Multiplex Technology Overview

Multiplex Analyte Technology Overview

PBL’s multiplex ELISAs employ a technology in which distinct capture antibodies are individually spotted into each well of a 96-well ELISA plate in a defined array. These plates are run similar to a normal ELISA run. An image of the plate is then taken using a CCD camera.

Using image analysis software to perform subsequent analysis, the chemiluminescent results for each analyte allow for a deeper understanding of the cytokine profiles of the samples.

PBL’s reagent development services offer customized production of cytokines, interferons, antibodies, and other proteins.

Select capabilities:

  • Recombinant protein production and purification (bacterial & mammalian)
  • Cytokine and antibody production and characterization
  • Hybridoma, polyclonal antibody, and cell line development
  • Protein and antibody labeling and biophysical characterization


Protein Biophysical Characterization Service

With a wealth of knowledge on immunological interactions, we offer protein biophysical characterization services which can determine the kinetic characterization of protein-protein interactions. These services include determination of:

  • Affinity of protein-protein interactions
  • Association and dissociation rates of protein-protein interactions
  • Antibody-antigen specificity and affinity

PBL offers biophysical characterization of antibody affinity for a ligand or the measurement of antigen:antibody Kon/Koff rates. To accelerate assay development, we also determine which antibodies bind to antigens in a sandwich format. Binning— determination of antibodies which bind to non-overlapping epitopes—is performed using multiple hybridoma clones.


The graph below shows the association and dissociation of IFN to a surface-immobilized antibody as determined by real time Biolayer Interferometry (BLI) using varying concentrations of IFN. The raw data is shown in blue and the model response in red.


Figure 1. IFN Binding to and Dissociation from a Surface-Immobilized Monoclonal Antibody Evaluated by Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI)

IFN Binding to and Dissociation from a Surface-Immobilized Monoclonal Antibody Evaluated by SPR

Protein & Antibody Labeling Service


PBL offers custom antibody labeling using a range of dyes and labels including FITC, R-PE, biotin, etc.


The graph below shows an example of a R-Phycoerythrin (PE) Conjugation of a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody.

Figure 2. Flow cytometry analysis of KG-1 cells showed expression of Human Interferon Alpha/Beta Receptor. Isotype control (shaded histogram) and human interferon alpha/beta receptor (un-shaded histogram). (Catalog No. 21370-3)

Flow cytometry analysis of KG-1 cells showed expression of Human Interferon Alpha/Beta Receptor

Cell-based assay tools are key to understanding cellular mechanisms in a biologically relevant context. PBL offers a targeted portfolio of cell-based assay services to provide you with the most relevant information and facilitate advancement of your research.


Whatever your cell-based study needs, PBL will work with you to determine the most suitable assay program to meet your goals. PBL’s services team is a trusted partner of midsize and major biotech and pharma companies worldwide.


Selected capabilities:

  • Cytokine/Chemokine Bioactivity Assays
    • Cell Proliferation & Anti-Proliferation
    • Cytokine Secretion
    • Chemotaxis and Enzyme Induction
  • Antiviral Assays (AVA)
    • Cytopathic Effect Inhibition (CPE)
    • Neutralizing Antibody Assay
    • Reporter Gene Constructs and Systems

Cytokine/Chemokine Bioactivity Assays


Proliferation & Anti-Proliferation Assays

Growth promotion and inhibition assays are often used to measure cytokine and drug activity profiles. Such Proliferation and Anti-Proliferation (AP) assays utilize a variety of cell lines and protein or small molecule stimuli to address specific applications and clinical indications. EC50 or IC50 results are provided.


Figure 1 shows OVCAR-3 grown in the presence of IFN-alpha. Cellular anti-proliferation was quantified using soluble tetrazolium reagent. Figure 2 shows TF-1 grown in the presence of GM-CSF. Cellular proliferation was quantified using soluble tetrazolium reagent. For both graphs, the quantity of reduced reagent product is directly proportional to viable cell number.


Figures 1 and 2. Growth Inhibition and Promotion Assays

Growth Inhibition and Promotion Assays

Cytokine Secretion Assays

Accurate measurement of the ability of a sample to induce cytokine production and/or release from cell lines or isolated donor cells is the standard assay for certain applications, such as measurement of IL-18 activity.


Figure 3 shows a natural killer cell model, NK-92, stimulated to produce IFN-Gamma by incubation with Type I IFNs. The data is graphed as a function of IFN-alpha concentration in the bioassay.


Figure 3. Cytokine Secretion Assay

Cytokine Secretion Assay

Antiviral Assays


Cytopathic Effect Inhibition (CPE) Assays

  • Frequently used systems:
    • Human A549 / EMCV
    • Bovine MDBK
    • Mouse L929 / VSV
  • High level of assay sensitivity and accuracy

The standard bioassay used to determine the biological activity of interferon (IFN) encompasses measurement of the protection of cells from the cytopathic effect (CPE) of certain viruses. CPE assay services may be used to measure the antiviral activity of IFN-α, β, ω, γ, and λ in human samples, as well as in a variety of other species, and in multiple matrices.


CPE assays are inherently complex due to the metabolic state of cells, virus replication, and the ability of IFN to protect cells. Our years of knowledge and expertise in CPE assays will reduce variability and provide you with reproducible quality results.


Results are provided either as a graphical representation of dye binding which allows slope and parallel line analysis, or visually determined from microscopic examination of the CPE and determination of the dilution of test samples which protects 50% of the cells.


Figure 4 to the right shows IFN-beta titrated in a CPE assay on A549 cells with EMCV. In this antiviral assay, the EC50 is approximately 1 unit/ml of interferon. Units of IFN activity were determined colorimetrically with respect to an international reference standard for human IFN.


Figure 4. Human IFN-Beta AVA Standard in CPE Assay

Cytopathic Effect Inhibition Assay

Neutralizing Antibody Assays

  • Suitable for serum, plasma, cell culture media, or tissue culture media samples

The standard method of accurately determining whether a sample may inhibit the biological activity of cytokines is the neutralization assay. Results, provided either as a visual read or in a graphical format, reveal the ability of a sample to block the activity of IFN added at a specific concentration which provides 100% cell protection.


May be used as an anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay for certain therapeutics.


Figure 5 to the right shows representative neutralization curves of two different MAbs to IFN in a CPE assay to determine neutralization titer. One neutralization unit (NU) is the amount of antiserum or antibody (NAb) required to neutralize 1 unit of human IFN to a 50% endpoint. NU are determined with respect to the international reference standard.


Figure 5. Monoclonal Antibody Titration (Neutralizing Antibody Assay)

Neutralizing Antibody Assay


Mouse Interferon Reagents and ELISAs

  • High quality recombinant proteins for research
  • Antibodies validated for biological assay use
  • ELISAs for immunological assay development

As the drug discovery pathway shifts toward specifically targeted pathways and molecules, model systems continue to increase in importance. The ease of use and versatility of mouse models in the study of human cancer, infectious disease and autoimmunity provides understanding into the etiology of these diseases. Data obtained from studies using mouse models can provide insight into potential clinical side effects and the pathology of diseases.

PBL Assay Science provides a comprehensive mouse product line manufactured to the highest standards of quality, consistency and purity. PBL’s products are designed to meet your scientific needs by providing superior quality and performance to ensure reliable and reproducible results.

Figure 1. Comparison of Mu Alpha A and Mu Alpha 4 Antiviral Activity

Figure 2. Recovery of Mu Alpha A in 50% Serum in Mu Alpha ELISA (42120)


Product Information

12100-1 Mouse IFN Alpha A 1 x 105 U
12105-1 Mouse IFN Alpha 1 1 x 105 U
12115-1 Mouse IFN Alpha 4, mammalian 1 x 105 U
12125-1 Mouse IFN Alpha 11 1 x 105 U
12130-1 Mouse IFN Alpha 13 1 x 105 U
12185-1 NEW C12R Mouse IFN Alpha Decoy Receptor, neutralizing 10 μg
12185-2 NEW C12R Mouse IFN Alpha Decoy Receptor, neutralizing 100 μg
12400-1 Mouse IFN Beta 1 x 105 U
12401-1 Mouse IFN Beta (carrier-free) 1 x 105 U
12405-1 Mouse IFN Beta, mammalian 1 x 105 U
12410-1 Mouse IFN Beta, mammalian (carrier-free) 1 x 106 U
12820-1 Mouse Interleukin-28b/IFN Lambda 3 25 μg
12821-1 Mouse Interleukin-28b/IFN Lambda 3 (carrier-free) 25 μg
  • Recombinant proteins derived from bacterial or mammalian cells
  • Consistent performance and biological activity
  • > 95% purity
  • Endotoxin level <1 EU/μg
  • Suitable for use in a range of applications such as ELISAs and cytopathic effect assays
  • Viral C12R IFN Antagonist neutralizes all mouse IFN alpha subtypes


22100-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Alpha, Clone RMMA-1 (MAb) 250 μg
22100-3 FITC Conjugated Anti-Mouse IFN Alpha, Clone RMMA-1 (MAb) 25 μg
22400-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Beta, Clone RMMB-1 (MAb) 250 μg
22400-3 FITC Conjugated Anti-Mouse IFN Beta, Clone RMMB-1 (MAb) 25 μg
22500-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Gamma, Clone RMMG-1 (MAb) 500 μg
32100-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Alpha, Rabbit Serum (PAb) 2 x 104 U
32120-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Alpha, Chicken IgY, Purified (PAb) 500 μg
32400-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Beta, Rabbit Serum (PAb) 2 x 104 U
32401-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Beta, Rabbit IgG, Protein A Purified (PAb) 2 x 104 U
32500-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Gamma, Rabbit Serum (PAb) 2 x 104 U
  • High specificity
  • Monoclonal antibodies have > 95% purity
  • Suitable for use in a range of applications such as ELISAs, neutralization, flow cytometry, and western blotting


42120-1 VeriKine Mouse IFN Alpha ELISA Kit 1 plate
42120-2 VeriKine Mouse IFN Alpha ELISA Kit 5 plate
42115-1 NEW VeriKine-HS Mouse IFN Alpha All-Subtype ELISA Kit 1 plate
42400-1 VeriKine Mouse IFN Beta ELISA Kit 1 plate
42400-2 VeriKine Mouse IFN Beta ELISA Kit 5 plate
42410-1 VeriKine-HS Mouse IFN Beta Serum ELISA Kit 1 plate
42410-2 VeriKine-HS Mouse IFN Beta Serum ELISA Kit 5 plate
52500-1 NEW VeriPlex Mouse Cytokine 9-Plex ELISA Kit 1 plate
62830-1 DIY Mouse IFN Lambda 2/3 (IL-28A/B) ELISA Materials for 15 x 96 wells
  • Mouse Alpha ELISAs provide global interferon alpha measurement in serum, plasma, and tissue culture media
  • < 10% inter- and intra- assay CVs
  • High sensitivity ELISA options provide accurate results ~2 hours
  • NEW Multiplex ELISA

Quality and Value - A Perfect Dimer!

High quality Interferon Gamma products from PBL Assay Science:

  • High Specific Activity
  • Low in aggregates
  • > 98% dimerizedDid you know that Interferon Gamma is only active as a protein dimer? Interferon Gamma are members of the Type II class of interferons. Type II IFN in humans is limited to the single Interferon Gamma gene. This IFN binds to the Type II receptor comprised of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 chains. Interferon Gamma is produced by cells of the immune system such as B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. Interferon Gamma is glycosylated in mammalian cells and the active form functions as a homodimer. All of PBL’s Interferon Gamma proteins are guaranteed dimers for maximum activity.

Figure 1. Chromatographic profile of IFN-γ showing dimerization and low aggregation

Figure 2. PBL IFN-γ and international gamma standard exhibit comparable antiviral activities

Product Information

Interferon Gamma Products

11500-1 Human IFN Gamma 50 μg
11500-2 Human IFN Gamma 100 μg
13500-1 Rat IFN Gamma 10 μg
21500-1 Anti-Human IFN Gamma, Clone MMHG-1 (MAb) 500 μg
21550-1 Anti-Human IFN Gamma, Clone MMHG-2 (MAb) 100 μg
21585-1 Anti-Human IFN Gamma Receptor Chain 2, Clone MMHGR-2 (MAb) 250 μg
22500-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Gamma, Clone RMMG-1 (MAb) 500 μg
31500-1 Anti-Human IFN Gamma, Rabbit Serum (PAb) 2 x 104 U
32500-1 Anti-Mouse IFN Gamma, Rabbit Serum (PAb) 2 x 104 U
41500-1 VeriKine Human IFN Gamma ELISA Kit 1 plate
41580-1 NEW VeriKine Human IFN Gamma Receptor 1 ELISA Kit 1 plate

Sensitive and Specific Non-Human Primate (NHP) ELISAs for serum, plasma and tissue culture media matrices

Non-human primates are considered a preferred model for the study of human diseases due to a close phylogenetic relationship to humans. The model is crucial to the elucidation of pathological mechanisms and may enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Studies of innate and adaptive immunity, pharmacodynamics (PD), and immunotoxicology of interferon stimulating/inhibiting molecules, as well as Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) models, can all be further advanced with an interferon immunoassay that is designed specifically for NHP.

PBL now offers ELISAs for the specific detection of NHP IFN-Alpha and IFN-Beta in a variety of sample matrices. Visit our website or contact us for more information on these kits!

Product Information:

VeriKineTM Cynomolgus/Rhesus Interferon Alpha Serum ELISA (Cat. No. 46100-1)

Compatibility: Serum, Plasma, Cell Culture Supernatant

Assay Range: 25 – 1600 pg/ml


  • Quantifies Cynomolgus and Rhesus IFN-α2 in serum, plasma and TCM
  • Reproducible results with excellent inter- and intra-assay CVs (<15%)
  • Provides greater NHP IFN-α detection sensitivity and matrix compatibility than traditional human IFN-α ELISA kits

Figure 1. Standard Curve in Different Sample Matrices

Figure 2. Specifically designed for detecting NHP IFN-α Greater NHP IFN-α detection sensitivity and matrix compatibility

Product Information:

VeriKineTM Cynomolgus Interferon Beta ELISA (Cat. No. 46415-1)
Compatibility: Serum, Plasma, Cell Culture Supernatant
Assay Range: 5.47 – 350 pg/ml

  • Quantifies Cynomolgus IFN-β (Macaca fascicularis) in serum, plasma and TCM
  • Reproducible results with excellent inter- and intra-assay CVs (<10%)

Figure 3. Typical standard curve from 5.47 to 350 pg/ml

Figure 4. Performance specifications at three different concentrations


Anti-Human Interferon Alpha/Beta Receptor Chain 2 (IFNAR2), Clone MMHAR-2 (MAb)

Figure 1. Mouse MAb to Human IFN α/β Receptor 2 (MMHAR-2)

  • Neutralizes biological activity of Human Type I IFNs (α, β, and ω)
  • Blocks Type I interferon receptor complex
  • Suitable for use in Type I IFN neutralization, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation


Anti-Human Interferon Lambda Receptor 1, Clone MMHLR-1 (MAb)

Figure 2. Neutralizing MAb against IFNLR1

  • Neutralizes human interferon lambda receptor 1
Sample EC50 (ng/ml)
10 ng/ml L1 31.3
10 ng/ml L2 54.3
3 ng/ml L3 22.0


C12R Mouse Interferon Alpha Decoy Receptor

Figure 3. C12R Neutralization of Mouse IFN α Subtypes on L929 Cells

  • Viral protein C12R neutralizes all 14 mouse IFN α subtypes in vitro
  • Neutralizes all human IFN α subtypes


Anti-Human Interferon Alpha, Sheep Serum (PAb)

Figure 4. Neutralization of Human IFN α subtypes on A549 cells

  • Neutralizes all human interferon alpha subtypes
  • Suitable for use in neutralization and Direct Binding ELISA


What is the level of endotoxin of your proteins?

< 1 EU/μg

What is the difference between formulation with carrier protein and formulation with carrier-free?

Carrier protein (PBS with 0.1% BSA) was added to provide extra stability to the cytokine proteins. However, in certain applications, such as in vivo injection, conjugation, or surface binding, carrier protein may interfere.

How to convert interferon specific activity to mass?

The formula to use to convert S.A. to pg/ml is as follow: [(1 x 10E+09)/(Lot specific activity in units/mg)] x [Lot-specific concentration in units/ml]

For interferon beta (Catalog No. 11410), what should I use for dilution?

Culture medium supplemented with serum. Interferon beta proteins are unstable at diluted concentrations. Unless formulation work has been done to verify stability, do not dilute carrier-free solution to protein concentration below 100 μg/ml.

Why is human interferon beta (Catolog No. 11410) shipped in acetic acid?

Acetic acid prevents aggregation of interferon beta proteins in this particular product formulation.

Does PBL offer controls for its antibodies?

PBL does not offer any controls for its antibodies at the current time.

What control should I use?

For monoclonal antibodies, use normal antibody from the same species and the same isotype. For example, if a MAb is a murine IgG2A, use the normal equivalent as the negative control. Some polyclonal antibodies from PBL are unpurified sera. Therefore, investigators should use normal unpurified serum from the appropriate species as their negative control.

How much neutralizing antibody should I use?

User cell lines vary so there is no specific answer to this question. However, the general rule is 70 fold excess in mass should be used for neutralizing interferon. It is recommended to quantify the amount of interferon via technique such as ELISA. It is also recommended to allow time (1-2 hours in general) for the antibody to neutralize the interferon before adding the virus.

How are antibodies determined to be neutralizing?

he viral challenge assay is used to test antibodies for neutralization activity. The assay measures the ability of the antibody to negate the protective effects of the interferon against the protective effects of the interferon against the viral challenge.

What types of antibodies are used in PBL ELISA kits?

All PBL ELISA kits are constructed with carefully selected proprietary antibodies and optimized reagents.

Can I use serum or plasma in your assay kits?

PBL offers a range of assay kits that are specifically designed for serum/plasma human interferon alpha (41110, 41115), human interferon beta (41415), mouse interferon beta (42410, 42400), cynomolgus interferon alpha (46100), human IFNs and cytokines (51500).

Does PBL offer ELISA reagents separately?

Due to lot-specific optimization of our ELISA kit reagents, they are not sold separately.

What are the specifications for optimization of the reagents for each lot of the kits?

To optimize each lot of kits, PBL modifies the concentration of the reagents to achieve a standard curve that will meet our specific range and signal to noise requirements.

Can components from different lots be used as substitutes?

No. Reagent concentration is optimized according to lot. Reagents from different lot can not be used as substitutes without affecting the overall performance of the kit.

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PBL Assay Science FAQs

If your questions are not listed below, please contact technical support: Assay KitsAntibodiesInterferons and CytokinesAssay KitsQ. What types of antibodies Read More...

VeriPlex Multiplex ELISAs

PBL Assay Science’s VeriPlex ELISAs are fully quantitative, high throughput multiplex ELISA kits that provide simultaneous quantification and detection of Read More…