ApexBio COVID-19

Research Solutions for Coronavirus | Apexbio


Compounds Code Name
List of compounds L1050 DiscoveryProbe™ Anti-Virus Compound Library
List of compounds L1021 DiscoveryProbe™ FDA-approved Drug Library


Cat No. Product Name Information
B4874 Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is an antimalarial agent used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune, inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. Also acts as an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9.
A1933 Carfilzomib (PR-171) Carfilzomib (PR-171) is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor with IC50 of <5 nM in ANBL-6 cells, displayed preferential in vitro inhibitory potency against the ChT-L activity in the β5 subunit, but little or no effect on the PGPH and T-L activities.
B1398 Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic by inhibiting protein synthesis, used for the treatment of bacterial infections.
B4950 Darunavir Ethanolate Darunavir Ethanolate (DRV) is a nonpeptidic HIV protease inhibitor, used to treat HIV infection.
B3477 Ciclesonide Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat obstructive airway diseases.
B2285 Daunorubicin HCl Daunorubicin HCl inhibits both DNA and RNA synthesis and inhibits DNA synthesis with Ki of 0.02 μM in a cell-free assay.
A8628 Chloroquine diphosphate Chloroquine diphosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, also acting as an ATM activator.
B1539 Tideglusib Tideglusib is an irreversible, non ATP-competitive GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 60 nM in a cell-free assay; fails to inhibit kinases with a Cys homologous to Cys-199 located in the active site. Phase 2.
B2082 Camostat Mesilate Camostat is a trypsin-like protease inhibitor, inhibits airway epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function with IC50 of 50 nM, less potent to trpsin, prostasin and matriptase.
B8398 Remdesivir (GS-5734) Remdesivir,a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analog, is an investigational broad-spectrum antiviral agent with in vitro activity against multiple RNA viruses, including Ebola and CoV.
A8504 Pitavastatin Calcium Pitavastatin calcium, a novel member of the medication class of statins, is a calcium salt formulation of pitavastatin which is a highly effective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
A4015 Disulfiram Disulfiram is a specific inhibitor of aldehyde-dehydrogenase (ALDH1), used for the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol.
A2586 Nafamostat Mesylate Nafamostat mesilate is a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, used as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis.
A8458 Lamivudine Lamivudine is a potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used for treatment of chronic HBV and HIV/AIDS. It works by blocking the HIV reverse transcriptase and hepatitis B virus polymerase.
N2643 Shikonin Shikonin, a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay.
A8204 Lopinavir Lopinavir is a potent HIV protease inhibitor with Ki of 1.3 pM in a cell-free assay.
A3653 Nelfinavir Mesylate Nelfinavir Mesylate is a potent HIV protease inhibitor with Ki of 2 nM.
A8203 Ritonavir Ritonavir is a Cytochrome P450 3A and Protease Inhibitor; Also inhibits Cytochrome P450 2D6, P-Glycoprotein and induces Cytochrome P450 2C19, Cytochrome P450 1A2, Cytochrome P450 2C9, Cytochrome P450 2B6 and UDP Glucuronosyltransferases.
A2813 Ivermectin Ivermectin is a glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCls) activator, used as a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug.
A5275 Tenofovir Tenofovir blocks reverse transcriptase and hepatitis B virus infections.
B1123 Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, with Ki value (inhibition constant) of approximately 0.1 nM.
A8206 Darunavir Darunavir is a nonpeptidic HIV protease inhibitor, used to treat HIV infection.
A4031 Telaprevir (VX-950) Telaprevir (VX-950) is an HCV NS3-4A serine protease inhibitor with IC50 of 0.35 μM.
A8518 Rosuvastatin Calcium Rosuvastatin Calcium is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 of 11 nM in a cell-free assay.
A2548 Carmofur Carmofur is a highly potent acid ceramidase inhibitor, used in the treatment of breast and colorectal cancer.
A4509 PX-12 PX-12 is a potent thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) inhibitor by irreversibly thioalkylation of Cys73 of Trx-1. Phase 2.
B2078 Atovaquone Atovaquone is a medication used to treat or prevent for pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, malaria, and babesia.
B1249 TDZD-8 TDZD-8 is a non-ATP competitive GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 2 μM; minimal inhibitory effect observed on CDK1, casein kinase II, PKA and PKC.
B2011 Praziquantel Praziquantel is an anthelmintic effective against flatworms.
A3261 Boceprevir Boceprevir is an oral, direct acting hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor with Ki value of 14 nM for NS3. It is used in combination with other antiviral agents in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1.
B2212 Moexipril HCl Moexipril HCl is a potent orally active nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
B1569 Bepotastine Besilate Bepotastine is a non-sedating, selective antagonist of histamine 1 (H1) receptor with pIC50 of 5.7.
C4696 Ebselen Ebselen is a small-molecule capsid inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication with IC50 of 46.1 nM in TR-FRET assay.

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. There are four main sub-groupings of coronaviruses, known as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus that causes COVID-19, the infectious disease that can cause an acute respiratory infection. Studies show that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein retains sufficient affinity to the cellular Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, and likely uses ACE2 protein as a receptor for cellular entry.
There is currently no specific medicine or treatment for diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2. We provide reverse transcription and qPCR series to help efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2, and also provide mRNA in vitro synthesis platform for mRNA vaccines development.

1. Reverse Transcriptase, qPCR Series

qPCR amplification curve of SARS-CoV-2 S gene. The initial number of copies of template DNA: 10/20/200 copies. Viral RNA was extracted from samples derived from patients with SARS-CoV-2. Reverse transcription was performed using reverse transcriptase (Cat. No. K1071) to obtain cDNA products. The cDNA was then quantified using 2X SYBR Green qPCR Master Mix (Cat. No. K1072)

Cat.No. Product Name Information
K1070 2×SYBR Green qPCR Master Mix 2X PreMix for quantifying target DNA or cDNA
K1071 Reverse Transcriptase Thermally stable reverse transcriptase used to synthesize complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template
K1072 First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit Synthesize first-strand cDNA from purified poly(A)+ or total RNA
K1046 RNase Inhibitor, Murine RNase Inhibitor, Murine specifically inhibits RNases A, B and C to protect RNA from degradation

2. RNA In Vitro Synthesis Platform

An overview of the workflow developing mRNA vaccines against 2019-nCoV. Both receptor-binding domain of the spike protein (S-RBD) and Virus like particles (VLPs) were chosen as the antigen. Strategy one: Based on the mRNA in vitro transcription platform, SARS-CoV-2 S, M, E mRNA were synthesized in vitro and individually transfected into 293T cells by using lipofectamine 2000. Virus like particles (VLPs) were produced and used as the presenting antigen. VLPs synthesized by the host cells have the same posttranslational modifications as the native virus, which is an important factor determining the validity of an antigen. Strategy two: For the S-RBD antigen, the RBD domain of the S protein was also expressed in cells using in vitro transcription (IVT) mRNA. (Ref.1)

VLPs were visualized under an electron microscope. We observed particles with striking features of coronavirus. The outline of the envelope for most particles was clear, the spikes were visible. The average size of the particle is 70nm in diameter for the membrane envelope and 90nm when including the spikes, consistent with reported native 2019-nCoV virus. (Ref.1)

The trimeric structure of the extra-vesicular domain of the spike protein from SARS-CoV. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) was used as the antigen. Use mRNA to express the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein (S-RBD). The S glycoprotein is responsible for binding to the receptor through its RBD, enabling the virus to enter into target cells by fusing with cell membranes. The western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of target proteins. (Ref.1)
1.Towards an effective mRNA vaccine against 2019-nCoV: demonstration of virus-like particles expressed from an modified mRNA cocktail.

Custom mRNA Synthesis

Affordable Cost, High Yields
APExBIO offers affordable custom synthesis of mRNA and long RNA (up to multiple kilobases) with a wide array of modification services at scales ranging from micrograms to milligrams. The mRNA can be generated from DNA templates provided by our customers or we can provide a full service from the ground up. We provide mCAP, ARCA and EZ Cap (equal to CleanCap) capping or modified nucleotides implication for all our standard mRNA transcripts.
For ordering and more information, please contact sales@stratech.co.uk. Our support team will review and provide a quotation soon.

In Vitro Synthesis of mRNA (In vitro transcription, IVT)
A 7-methyl guanosine (m7G) cap structure at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end are required for mRNA to be translated efficiently in vitro. Capped mRNAs are synthesized by co-transcriptional incorporation of Anti-Reverse Cap Analog (ARCA) via T7 RNA Polymerase. DNase I is used to remove the template DNA, so Poly(A) Polymerase can attach poly(A) tail to capped mRNA. 5-Methyl-CTP, Pseudo-UTP and other modified nucleotides can also be incorporated into mRNA. Synthetic mRNAs are applicable in cell transfection, microinjection, in vitro translation and RNA vaccines etc.
Our custom synthesis mRNA covers a wide range of applications:
mRNA for genome editing, e.g. Zinc-finger Nuclease mRNA, TALEN mRNA, Cas9 mRNA and Recombinase mRNA.
Reporter gene mRNA, such as EGFP mRNA and Luc mRNA, for fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and bioluminescent imaging.
Reprogramming mRNA, i.e mRNA for non-integrating generation of iPSC.
Cat.No. Product Name Cat.No. Product Name
B8175 ARCA B8174 mCAP
B7972 Pseudo-UTP B7967 5-Methyl-CTP
B8061 5-Methoxy-UTP K1046 RNase Inhibitor, Murine
K1047 HyperScribe? T7 High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit K1053 HyperScribe? Poly (A) Tailing Kit
K1060 HyperScribe? T7 High Yield Fluorescein RNA Labeling Kit K1061 HyperScribe? T7 High Yield Cy3 RNA Labeling Kit
K1062 HyperScribe? T7 High Yield Cy5 RNA Labeling Kit K1063 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit (ARCA, T7, poly(A))
K1064 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit Plus 1 (ARCA, 5mCTP, ψUTP, T7, poly(A)) K1065 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit Plus 2 (ARCA, 5-moUTP, T7, poly(A))
K1066 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit II (EZ Cap Reagent AG (3’ OMe), T7, poly(A)) K1067 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit II Plus 1 (EZ Cap Reagent AG (3’ OMe), 5mCTP, ψUTP, T7, poly(A))
K1068 HyperScribe? All in One mRNA Synthesis Kit II Plus 2 (EZ Cap Reagent AG (3’ OMe), 5-moUTP, T7, poly(A))
mRNA Purification
mRNAs transcribed in vitro by T7 RNA polymerase may contain various contaminants, such as short RNAs produced by abortive initiation events, double-stranded (ds)RNAs generated by self-complementary 3’extension, as well as unincorporated nucleoside triphosphates, small abortive transcripts and plasmid template. Certain RNA sequences even induce high levels immunogenicity.
APExBIO offers purification service to remove the contaminants of modified nucleotide-containing mRNA, thus increase the processing efficiency for downstream applications.
Silica-gel Membrane Spin Column Purification:
It is a solid phase extraction technique for fast nucleic acid purification. mRNA can be bound to solid phase of silica-gel membranes under certain conditions, with subsequent washing and elution steps in water or TE pH 7. This method eliminates most proteins, DNA and NTPs.
HPLC purification by ?KTA avant system:
mRNA can be purified by HPLC (?KTA avant system) using column matrix of alkylated non-porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer microspheres and optimized buffer system, followed by mRNA analyses and mRNA isolation from column fractions.
HPLC purification removes dsRNA and other contaminants from in vitro synthesized modified nucleotide-containing mRNAs, yielding mRNA with the high level of translation without generation of immunogenicity or RNA sensor activation.
mRNA and long RNA products
APExBIO supplies the best quality mRNA and long RNA. This new product lines involve custom synthesis of mRNA and long RNA (up to multiple kilobases) with a wide array of modification services at scales ranging from micrograms to milligrams. The mRNA can be generated from DNA templates provided by our customers or we can provide a full service from the ground up. We offer mCAP or ARCA capping or modified nucleotides implication for all our standard mRNA transcripts.
All of our mRNA products offer:
Incorporates an anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA) into the transcript to increase translation efficiency
Reduces host cell immune response and enhances stability by incorporating modified nucleotides (5mCTP and ψUTP) and a poly(A) tail
Degrades the DNA template after RNA synthesis with DNase
Removes the 5’ triphosphates at the end of the RNA with phosphatase to further reduce innate immune responses in mammalian cells
Employs a robust clean-up spin column system that delivers high yields of mRNAs that are ready for most downstream applications
Cat.No. Product Name Cat.No. Product Name
R1005 Firefly Luciferase mRNA (ARCA, 5mCTP, ψUTP) R1006 SpCas9 mRNA (ARCA, 5mCTP, ψUTP)
R1007 ARCA EGFP mRNA (5-moUTP) R1008 ARCA Cy3 EGFP mRNA (5-moUTP)
R1009 ARCA Cy5 EGFP mRNA (5-moUTP) R1010 EZ Cap? Cy5 Firefly Luciferase mRNA (5-moUTP)
R1011 EZ Cap? Cy5 EGFP mRNA (5-moUTP) R1012 Firefly Luciferase mRNA (ARCA, 5-moUTP)
R1013 EZ Cap? Firefly Luciferase mRNA (5-moUTP) R1014 ARCA Cas9 5-moUTP
R1015 EZ Cap? Cas9 5-moUTP R1016 EZ Cap? EGFP mRNA (5-moUTP)
R1017 EZ Cap? mCherry mRNA (5mCTP, ψUTP) R1018 EZ Cap? Firefly Luciferase mRNA
B8178 EZ Cap? Reagent AG (3’ OMe)

Antibody Drugs and Vaccine Development Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information
B8293 ddhCTP Chain terminator for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Novel antiviral nucleotide molecules.
B8362 2,3-cGAMP Immune adjuvant, can specifically activate STING pathway, stimulate innate immunity and accelerate antibody production.
BC1001 Human B Cell Culture and Expansion Kit Used for activation and expansion of human B cells.
BC1002 3T3-msCD40L Cell Lines 3T3-CD40L cells can be co-cultured with B cells to aid B cell expansion.
Z Cap™ Reagent AG, Used for co-transcriptional capping of mRNA to form Cap 1 structure, m7G(5′)ppp(5′)(2’OMeA)pG.


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