AAT Bioquest are well known for their photometric detection fluorescence and luminescent technologies.

Their products have applications in drug discovery and diagnostic research and they are continuously expanding their product portfolio.

They are well known for their i Fluor kits and Fluo-8 the trite still calcium indicator.

AAT strive to innovate and push the boundaries of assay technology.


GeliteTM
Gelite TM Safe DNA Gel Stain
GeliteTM
iFluorTM
iFluorTM Secondary Antibody Conjugates
iFluorTM
Cell NavigatorTM
Cell Navigator TM Guides Live Cell Imaging
Cell NavigatorTM
Nuclear Stains
Nuclear Stains Complete Spectral Profile
Nuclear Stains
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Products

Top Products

  • Amplite™ enzyme-based detection platform, optimised for measuring horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, lactamase, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, proteases, cytochrome P450, histone deacetylase (HDAC) and cell signalling molecules such as NAD/NADH, NADP/NADPH, IP3, cAMP and cGMP etc.
  • Cell Explorer™ cell labelling kits, a complete set of tools for tracking live cells.
  • Cell Navigator™ cell staining kits, a complete set of tools for selectively labelling subcellular structures of live, fixed and dead cells.
  • Cell Meter™ cellular functional assay kits, a complete set of tools for functional analysis of cellular events.
  • FP Fluor™ superior fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for developing fluorescence polarisation-based assays.
  • iFluor™ superior fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for labelling proteins and nucleic acids.
  • NIR Fluor™ superior fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for in vivo imaging.
  • PhosphoWorks™ detection platform; a set of tools for detection of ATP, ADP, AMP, phosphate, pyrophosphate, phosphoproteins and phosphopeptides.
  • Prolite™ protein detection platform; a sensitive and robust tool for detection of proteins in solutions and solid surfaces (such as gels and membranes).
  • Quest View™ colourimetric protease platform; a sensitive and robust tool for detection of diagnostic protease and glycosidase biomarkers in rapid tests.
  • ReadiView Biotin™ labelling platform, a robust tool for biotinylation.
  • RatioWorks™ superior cellular dyes; a sensitive and robust tool for ratio imaging of live cells.
  • Screen Quest™ assay kits, a set of HTS-ready tools for high throughput screening of biochemical and cellular targets such as protein kinases, proteases, HDAC, cell apoptosis and cytoxicity, GPCR, ion channels, ADME/metabolism and transporters.
  • Tide Fluor™ superior fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for labelling nucleotides and peptides.
  • Tide Quencher™ non-fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for labelling FRET nucleotides and peptide.
  • TR Fluor™superior fluorescent labelling dyes, optimised for developing time-resolved fluorescence-based assays.

Catalogues

Besides our standard catalog products, we also offer the following custom services to meet your special research needs. Please send your inquires/requests to info@stratech.co.uk. Let us put our experience and expertise work for you!

See below to read more about each service.

Antibody development services

  • Antibody conjugation
  • Antigen conjugation
  • Antigen development
  • Cell signaling antibodies
  • Secondary antibodies
  • Small molecule antibodies

Assay development services

  • Cell-based assays
  • Enzyme activity assays
  • Fluorescence imaging assays
  • Flow cytometry assays
  • Lead compound identification
  • Luminescence-based assays

Contract research services

  • Labeling technologies
  • Lead compound identification
  • Luminescence technologies
  • Nanoparticle development
  • Point of care technologies
  • TR-FRET technologies

Bioconjugation services

  • Alkaline phosphatase conjugation
  • APC and PE tandem conjugation
  • Biotin labeling
  • Fluorescence labeling
  • HRP conjugation
  • Streptavidin conjugation
  • TR-FRET labeling

Custom synthesis services

  • Biotin and its derivatives
  • Clickable probes
  • Crosslinkers
  • Enzyme inhibitors
  • Enzyme substrates
  • Fluorescent probes
  • Hapten molecules
  • Luminescent compounds

HTS development services

  • ADME
  • Enzyme inhibitors
  • Glucose transporter targets
  • GPCR targets
  • Ion channels
  • Protease targets
  • Protein kinase inhibitors
  • Protein phosphatase inhibitors

Antibody conjugation

Keywords: antibody, conjugation, IgG, labeling, crosslinking, tagging

There are many varieties of antibody conjugation technologies available and each has its benefits, though no single one is optimal for every payload and antibody. Among them AAT Bioquest’s Buccutite™ crosslinking technology offer the most efficient method to conjugate antibodies with macromolecules such as enzyme tags. In addition, AAT Bioquest has used its Readilink™ technology to offer a rapid access to a variety of antibody conjugation products with small tag molecules such as fluorescent dyes, biotin, drug targets and haptens for our customers’ special needs.

Related products: Buccutite labeling kitsReadiLink labeling kitsiFluor

Antigen conjugation

Keywords: antigen, BSA, OVA, KLH, beads

Since its inception AAT Bioquest has provided a large number of antibody companies and research laboratories the most competitive and high quality antigen conjugation services. Our antigen conjugation service includes BSA, OVA and KLH conjugations. In addition, AAT Bioquest has also prepared antigen-resins (beads) for our customers to purify their desired antibodies.

Antigen development

Keywords: antigen, small molecules, incubation, booster, immune response

AAT Bioquest specialize in designing small molecule antigens for developing small molecule antibodies. These small molecule antigens include cell metabolites, small molecule drugs, antibiotics, insecticides and herbicides.

Cell signaling antibodies

Keywords: signal transduction, antibody modification, site-specific, phosphatase, kinase, signaling intermediates

The reactions of cells to various internal and external stimuli are transmitted via cell signaling pathways. Transferring information from one location (exterior) to another (cytoplasm, nucleus) involves many components forming signal transduction cascades or pathways. Intracellular signal transduction is often accomplished through a series of reversible protein phosphorylation events. We provide a broad portfolio of services to custom-develop phospho-specific antibodies.

Secondary antibodies

Keywords: secondary antibodies, conjugation, anti-IgG, signal amplification, secondary detection

Secondary antibodies bind to the primary antibodies to assist in detection, sorting and purification of target antigens. To enable detection, a secondary antibody must have specificity for the antibody species and isotype of the primary antibody being used and generally is conjugated. AAT Bioquest offers a variety of secondary antibodies and conjugation services.

Small molecule antibodies

Keywords: small molecules, food safety, chloramphenicol, antibiotics, quality control

AAT Bioquest specialize in designing and developing small molecule antibodies used in research, diagnostics and food safety tests. These small molecule antibodies are used for detecting cell metabolites, small molecule drugs, antibiotics, insecticides, herbicides and other small molecules of a particular interest.

Cell-based assays

Keywords: primary/secondary screening, drug response, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, GPCR channel, ion channel

Cell based assays offer a biologically relevant substitute to predict the response of a drug on an organism and while initially used mostly for secondary screening, are now progressively being used for primary screens. AAT Bioquest offers a broad spectrum of cell-based assays for cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, GPCR and ion channels.

Enzyme activity assays

Keywords: enzymes, phosphatases, kinases, proteases, transferases, enzyme kinetics, inhibition, dose response, activity

Enzyme assays are vital for studying enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibition. AAT Bioquest offers services to test enzyme activity and screening enzyme inhibitors. We specialize in protein phosphatases, protein kinases, proteases and transferases.

Fluorescence imaging assays

Keywords: fluorescence, imaging, microscope, gene expression, protein expression, subcellular structures, spatio-temporal

Fluorescence imaging is the visualization of fluorescent dyes or proteins as labels for molecular processes or structures. It enables a wide range of experimental observations including the location and dynamics of gene expression, protein expression and molecular interactions in cells and tissues. AAT Bioquest has used its unique fluorescent probes to offer high content analysis service for a variety drug targets.

Flow cytometry assays

Keywords: flow cytometry, cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection, protein engineering, cell population, proliferation

Flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus. AAT Bioquest has used its unique flow cytometry assay technologies to offer flow cytometry analysis service for a variety of biological samples.

Lead compound identification

Keywords: lead, metal ions, chemical modification, high-throughput screening, receptor inhibition, receptor stimulation

Lead compound identification is a complex process, with many decision-making points converging upon the selection of promising compounds to compete in the race for lead compound optimization and, ultimately, clinical candidate development. AAT Bioquest has developed a number of high throughput and high content assays that are used for our lead compound identification service.

Luminescence-based assays

Keywords: luminescence, chemical reaction, luciferin, quantification, emission

Luminescence-based assays are the tests in which a luminescent signal (in the form of light, or photons) is generated via a chemical or biochemical reaction and measured using a plate reader. In general, light collected from luminescent assay measurements is not restricted to particular wavelengths. AAT Bioquest uses its unique luminescence-based assays to offer services for analyzing cell functions, enzyme activities and screening enzyme inhibitors.

Alkaline phosphatase conjugation

Keywords: immunoassay, colorimetric, enzyme-based, conjugation, labeling, ALP, nitroblue tetrazolium, BCIP, western blot

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons, containing two zinc atoms crucial to its catalytic function per monomer, and is optimally active at alkaline pH environments. Its conjugates have become an extremely useful tool in molecular biology and enzyme immunoassays. AAT Bioquest’s Buccutite™ technology offers the most efficient method to conjugate antibodies and other macromolecules with ALP.

APC and PE tandem conjugation

Keywords: tandem dyes, conjugation, allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin, flow cytometry, FRET, time resolved FRET

The first set of tandem dyes were generated using PE and APC fluorophores as donors in the late 1980s and mid-1990s, respectively. The subsequent revolutionary increase in tandem dyes, as well as additional lasers during this period led to the advancement of multicolor flow cytometry using tandem dyes in multicolor panel. AAT Bioquest’s Buccutie™ technology offers the most efficient method to conjugate antibodies and other macromolecules with APC and PE tandems.

Biotin labeling

Keywords: conjugation, biotinylation, streptavidin, avidin, biotin, signal amplification, strong covalent bond, immunoassay

Biotin labeling (also called biotinylation) is the process of covalently attaching biotin to a protein, nucleic acid or other molecule. Biotinylation is rapid, specific and is unlikely to perturb the natural function of the molecule due to the small size of biotin. Biotin binds streptavidin and avidin with an extremely high affinity, fast on-rate, and high specificity, and these interactions are exploited in many areas of biotechnology to isolate biotinylated molecules of interest. Our ReadiView™ biotinylation technology enables us to offer the fastest and most accurate biotinylation service.

Fluorescence labeling

Keywords: conjugation, excitation, emission, small molecule probe, highly sensitive, immunolabeling, multiplex

Labeling various targets with separate fluorescent colors allows for the visualization of different structures or proteins within a cell in the same experiment. Ways to fluorescently label a target include fluorescent dyes, immunolabeling, and fluorescent fusion proteins- all of which can provide a means to selectively mark structures and proteins within the cell. This enables easy and direct imaging in applications such as fluorescence microscopy. AAT Bioquest offer the best fluorescence labeling services for a variety of biologicals samples with our unique iFluor™, mFluor™, trFluor™, Tide Fluor™, Tide Quencher™ and other classic fluorescent dyes (e.g., FITC, TRITC and some Alexa Fluor® dyes).

HRP conjugation

Keywords: HRP, ELISA, enzyme-based, colorimetric, TMB, ADHP, sandwich assay

The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), found in the roots of horseradish, is used extensively in biochemistry applications. HRP conjugates are commonly used in techniques such as ELISA and Immunohistochemistry due to its monomeric nature and the ease with which it produces colored products. HRP is ideal in many respects for these applications because it is smaller, more stable, and less expensive than other popular tag enzymes. It also has a high turnover rate that allows generation of strong signals in a relatively short time span. AAT Bioquest’s Buccutie™ technology offers the most efficient method to conjugate antibodies and other macromolecules with HRP.

Streptavidin conjugation

Keywords: streptavidin, biotin, signal amplification, strong covalent bond, secondary reagent

Streptavidin homo-tetramers have an extraordinarily high affinity for biotin and its conjugates. The binding of biotin to streptavidin is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known in nature. Streptavidin is used extensively in molecular biology and other biological detections due to the streptavidin-biotin complex’s resistance to organic solvents, denaturants, detergents, proteolytic enzymes, and extremes of temperature and pH. AAT Bioquest’s Buccutie™ technology offers the most efficient method to conjugate antibodies and other macromolecules with streptavidin

TR-FRET labeling

Keywords: FRET, delayed excitation, reduced background, tandem dyes, europium, terbium, fluorescence microscopy

Time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (TR-FRET) is the practical combination of time-resolved fluorometry (TRF) combined with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that offers a powerful tool for drug discovery researchers. TR-FRET combines the low background aspect of TRF with the homogeneous assay format of FRET. The resulting assay provides an increase in flexibility, reliability and sensitivity in addition to higher throughput and fewer false positive/false negative results. FRET involves two fluorophores, a donor and an acceptor. Excitation of the donor by an energy source (e.g. flash lamp or laser) produces an energy transfer to the acceptor if the two are within a given proximity to each other. The acceptor in turn emits light at its characteristic wavelength. Our trFluor™ technology enables us to offer the best and most affordable TR-FRET service.

Labeling technologies

Keywords: bioconjugation, protein, antibody, fluorophore, enzyme-tag, drug discovery

AAT Bioquest has provided a variety of enabling detection technologies to many large pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies. We have special expertise in the areas of fluorescence labeling, biotinylation, enzyme labeling, cell labeling and crosslinking of macromolecules such as antibodies, enzymes and nucleic acids. Our CRO services are the most more cost-effective in the industry.

Lead compound identification

Keywords: lead, small molecule detection, chemical modification, high-throughput screening, receptor inhibition

Lead compound identification is a complex process, with many decision-making points converging upon the selection of promising compounds to compete in the race for lead compound optimization and, ultimately, clinical candidate development. AAT Bioquest has developed a number of high throughput and high content assays that are used for our lead compound identification service.

Luminescence technologies

Keywords: luminescence, emission, luciferin, quantification assay, microplate

Luminescence-based assays are the tests in which a luminescent signal (in the form of light, or photons) is generated via a chemical or biochemical reaction and measured using a plate reader. In general, light collected from luminescent assay measurements is not restricted to particular wavelengths. AAT Bioquest uses its unique expertise to develop novel luminescence-based assays to meet its customers’ special needs.

Nanoparticle development

Keywords: nanoparticles, surface modification, spatio-temporal tagging, bioconjugation, gene regulation

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are, in effect, a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale size-dependent properties are often observed. That is, the properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the surface-to-volume ratio of the material increases. Nanoparticles often possess unexpected optical properties as they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects. Using its unique conjugation and surface-coating chemistry, AAT Bioquest has custom-developed a variety of nanoparticles for its customers.

Point of care technologies

Keywords: POCT, diagnostics, patient care, conjugation, fluorescence, glucose-monitoring, food contamination

Point-of-care testing (POCT), or bedside testing is defined as medical diagnostic testing at or near the point of care at the time and place of patient care. This contrasts with the historical pattern in which testing was wholly or mostly confined to the medical laboratory, which entailed sending off specimens away from the point of care and then waiting hours or days to learn the results, during which time care must continue without the desired information. Using its unique conjugation and fluorescence detection chemistry, AAT Bioquest has custom-developed a variety of POCT technologies for its customers such as glucose-monitoring and on-site food contamination detection.

TR-FRET technologies

Keywords: FRET, delayed excitation, reduced background, tandem dyes, europium, terbium, fluorescence microscopy

Time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (TR-FRET) is the practical combination of time-resolved fluorometry (TRF) combined with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that offers a powerful tool for drug discovery researchers. TR-FRET combines the low background aspect of TRF with the homogeneous assay format of FRET. The resulting assay provides an increase in flexibility, reliability and sensitivity in addition to higher throughput and fewer false positive/false negative results. FRET involves two fluorophores, a donor and an acceptor. Excitation of the donor by an energy source (e.g. flash lamp or laser) produces an energy transfer to the acceptor if the two are within a given proximity to each other. The acceptor in turn emits light at its characteristic wavelength. AAT Bioquest has used its trFluor™ technology to custom-develop TR-FRET-based POCT technologies for its HTS customers.

Biotin and its derivatives

Keywords: conjugation, biotinylation, streptavidin, avidin, biotin, signal amplification, strong covalent bond, immunoassay

Biotin and its derivatives bind to streptavidin and avidin with an extremely high affinity, fast on-rate, and high specificity, and these interactions are exploited in many areas of biotechnology to detect biotinylated conjugates or isolate biotinylated molecules of interest. Since its inception AAT Bioquest has synthesized thousands of special biotin compounds for its customers.

Clickable probes

Keywords: clickable, click chemistry, dna modification, protein modification, carbohydrate modification, dbco

Click Chemistry is a reaction between azide and alkyne, yielding 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole. This process is also known as CuAAC-Cu catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition. Click probes have become a powerful tool for modifying DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and other biological materials. Since its inception AAT Bioquest has synthesized thousands of special clickable probes for its customers. These compounds include DBCO, TCO, tetrazine, azide, alkyne, and other related molecules.

Crosslinkers

Keywords: crosslinking, homobifunctional, heterobifunctional, proteins, peptides, oligo, spacer, amine, thiol

Protein crosslinking agents possess reactive moieties specific to various functional groups (sulfhydryls, amines, carbohydrates, etc.) on proteins, peptides, or other molecular complexes. Homobifunctional crosslinker reagents have the same reactive group on both ends of the spacer arm (i.e., amine reactive-amine reactive); while heterobifunctional crosslinkers have different reactive groups on each end of a spacer arm (i.e., sulfhydryl reactive-amine reactive). Since its inception AAT Bioquest has synthesized hundreds of special homobifunctional and heterobifunctional crosslinkers for its customers. Some of these crosslinkers are cleavable by a desired special condition such as light, pH change, TCEP, DDT and other special reagents.

Enzyme inhibitors

Keywords: enzymes, inhibition, phosphatases, kinases, proteases, transferases, drug discovery, active site

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. Since blocking an enzyme’s activity can kill a pathogen or correct a metabolic imbalance, many drugs are enzyme inhibitors. They are also used in pesticides and other applications. AAT Bioquest offer services to design, screen and identify enzyme inhibitors using our novel enzyme activity and screening assays. We specialize in screening enzyme inhibitors for protein phosphatases, protein kinases, proteases and transferases.

Enzyme substrates

Keywords: substrate, enzymes, active site, chromogenic, fluorogenic, tmb, adhp, activity assay

Enzyme substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). In the case of a single substrate, the substrate bonds with the enzyme active site, and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products, which are then released from the active site. The active site is then free to accept another substrate molecule. In the case of more than one substrate, these may bind in a particular order to the active site, before reacting together to produce products. A substrate is called ‘chromogenic’ if it gives rise to a colored product when acted on by an enzyme. In histological enzyme localization studies, the colored product of enzyme action can be viewed under a microscope, in thin sections of biological tissues. Similarly, a substrate is called ‘fluorogenic’ if it gives rise to a fluorescent product when acted on by an enzyme.

Fluorescent probes

Keywords: fluorophore, excitation, emission, stokes shift, highly sensitive, microscopy, flow cytometry, microplate

Fluorescent probes are the molecules that absorb light of a specific wavelength and emit light of a different, typically longer, wavelength (a process known as fluorescence), and are used to study biological samples. The molecules, also known as fluorophores, can be attached to a target molecule and act as a marker for analysis with fluorescence microscopy. The use of fluorescent molecules in biological research is the gold standard in many applications, and their use is continually increasing due to their versatility, sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. AAT Bioquest is a leading company in developing novel fluorescent probes. Since its inception AAT Bioquest has synthesized thousands of novel fluorescent probes for its customers that have been incorporated into a broad range of biological detection technologies.

Hapten molecules

Keywords: haptens, immune response, antibodies, hapten-carrier adduct, proteins, klh, bsa, ova

Haptens are the small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein. In general, the carrier may be one that does not elicit an immune response by itself. Once the body has generated antibodies to a hapten-carrier adduct, the small-molecule hapten may also be able to bind to the antibody, but it will usually not initiate an immune response. In general, only the hapten-carrier adduct can do this. AAT Bioquest has custom-synthesized hundreds of special hapten molecules for its customers.

Luminescent compounds

Keywords: luminescence, emission, luciferin, quantification assay, microplate, acridium esters, dioxetanes, luminol

Luminescent compounds are widely used to develop extremely sensitive assays in which a luminescent signal (in the form of light, or photons) is generated via a chemical or biochemical reaction and measured using a plate reader. Luminescent techniques enable highest sensitivity and selectivity detection even within cells and tissue sections. Luminescence monitoring is usually rather simple and easily automated. AAT Bioquest uses its unique expertise to synthesize novel luminescent probes to meet its customers’ special needs. These novel luminescent probes include luciferin derivatives, acridium esters, dioxetanes, luminol and isoluminol analogs and conjugates.

ADME

Keywords: ADME, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, pharmacology

ADME is an abbreviation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacology for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound within an organism. The four criteria all influence the drug levels and kinetics of drug exposure to the tissues and hence influence the performance and pharmacological activity of the compound as a drug. With its robust cytotoxicity, metabolite and p-450 assays, AAT Bioquest offer excellent ADME screening for its customers.

Enzyme inhibitors

Keywords: enzymes, inhibition, phosphatases, kinases, proteases, transferases, blocking, drug target

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. Since blocking an enzyme’s activity can kill a pathogen or correct a metabolic imbalance, many drugs are enzyme inhibitors. They are also used in pesticides and other applications. With a large collection of enzyme activity assays AAT Bioquest offer competitive HTS services to screen and identify enzyme inhibitors. We specialize in screening enzyme inhibitors for protein phosphatases, protein kinases, proteases and transferases.

Glucose transporter targets

Keywords: glucose, assay, diabetes, GLUT, SLC2A, insulin

Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. AAT Bioquest has developed the most robust glucose assays that have been used in our HTS services.

GPCR targets

Keywords: GPCR, receptors, signal transduction, cAMP screening, cell membrane, calcium, FLIPR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors, that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. GPCRs are the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. These cell surface receptors act like an inbox for messages in the form of light energy, peptides, lipids, sugars, and proteins. With its industry-leading calcium and cAMP screening assays and special GPCR cell lines, AAT Bioquest offers a very comprehensive and competitive GPCR screening service.

Ion channels

Keywords: membrane proteins, channels, cell membrane, ionophoric, small molecules, membrane potential

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. Their functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins). With its industry-leading calcium, potassium, chloride, membrane potential screening assays and special ion channel cell lines, AAT Bioquest offers competitive ion channel screening service for sodium, potassium and chloride channels.

Protease targets

Keywords: protease, hydrolysis, digestion, amino acids, enzymes, FRET detection, peptide, oligo

Protease (also known as a proteolytic enzyme, peptidase or proteinase) is a type of enzymes that function mainly to help us digest different kinds of proteins. They break down the bonds by a process known as hydrolysis and convert proteins into smaller chains called peptides or even smaller units called amino acids. A variety of proteases are used medically both for their native function (e.g. controlling blood clotting) or for completely artificial functions (e.g. for the targeted degradation of pathogenic proteins). With a large collection of protease activity assays AAT Bioquest offer comprehensive and competitive HTS services to screen and identify protease inhibitors.

Protein kinase inhibitors

Keywords: kinase, inhibition, phosphorylation, cellular pathways, signal transduction, signal amplification, enzymes

A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein (substrate) by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. Kinases are known to regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction. A protein kinase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor that blocks the action of one or more protein kinases. With its universal kinase activity assay platform AAT Bioquest offers competitive protein kinase screening service.

Protein phosphatase inhibitors

Keywords: phosphatase, protein modification, dephsophorylation, amino acid residue, enzymes

A protein phosphatase is a phosphatase enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common forms of reversible protein posttranslational modification. Proteins are phosphorylated predominantly on Ser, Thr and Tyr residues. In contrast, protein phosphatases (PPs) are the primary effectors of dephosphorylation and can be grouped into three main classes based on sequence, structure and catalytic function. The protein pseudophosphatases form part of the larger phosphatase family, and in most cases are thought to be catalytically inert, instead functioning as phosphate-binding proteins, integrators of signalling or subcellular traps. AAT Bioquest offers competitive protein phosphatase inhibitor screening service.

Featured Web-Based Tools

PCR consists of the four following steps:

  1. Denaturation by Heat: double-stranded DNA is separated into two single strands, by a process called denaturation which occurs at temperatures higher than 90 degrees Celsius. Heat breaks hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, while the stronger bonds between deoxyribose and phosphates, remain intact.
  2. Annealing Primer to Target Sequence: before the target sequence (generally between 100-600 base pairs) is replicated, it must be targeted using primers that target the ends of the target DNA sequence by annealing (binding) to the complementary sequence. Annealing occurs at lower temperature (between 40 and 65 degrees Celsius) which depends on the length and base sequence of the primers.
  3. Extension: after annealing, the temperature is increased to 72 degrees Celsius and the Taq DNA polymerase enzyme is used for replicating the DNA strands. During synthesis (or extension), two identical double stranded DNA molecules are synthesized.
  4. End of the First PCR Cycle: after which the process is repeated generally between 25 and 35 times.

Interactive Spectrum Viewer

Allows users to view and compare spectral (excitation and emission) data. This tool is essential for experimental planning and choosing the right fluorophore/label.

Extinction Coefficient Finder

Search a large database of fluorescent compounds. Extinction coefficient is an important factor in quantifying probe “brightness” and is useful for calculations of concentration and degree of labelling.

Concentration & Molecular Weight

DNA molecular weight calculator – When performing a PCR or gel run, the molecular weight of a sense strand of RNA can be important to know. This calculator converts a string of nucleotides into a molecular weight value. Additionally, the antisense strand of the DNA is provided, along with its own molecular weight.
Peptide and protein molecular weight calculator – Amino acids, the constituent organic compounds making up peptides and proteins, form long chains that determine shape and function. This calculator provides the molecular weight of a peptide or protein based on a string of amino acids given.
Protein concentration calculator – For many assays, it is critical to know the concentration of a protein solution prior to experimentation. The concentration of a protein solution can be determined using its absorbance value at its maximum absorbance wavelength and a derived form of the Beer-Lambert law.
RNA molecular weight calculator – When performing a PCR or gel run, the molecular weight of a sense strand of RNA can be important to know. This calculator converts a string of nucleotides into a molecular weight value. Additionally, the antisense strand of the DNA is provided, along with its own molecular weight.

Data Analysis & Regression

4PL calculator – Fits a symmetrical sigmoidal, “s”, shaped curve for experimental data. Generates equation and graph.
EC50 calculator – In pharmacology, the EC50 represents the concentration of a substance which results in half of its maximal response. This calculator will determine the EC50 given experimental data.
IC50 calculator – The IC50 of an antagonist is the concentration at which half of the inhibitory effect is achieved. It is an important value in pharmacology as it characterizes a drug’s potency on biological processes. This calculator determines the IC50 given experimental data.
Linear, Logarithmic, Semi-Log Regression Calculator – This calculator determines a best fit linear function using the least-squares method. It will provide four different linear regressions: linear-linear, log-linear, linear-log and log-log.

Experiment Planning

Buffer preparations – A list of common physiological buffers used in research. Includes buffers such as acetate buffer, HBSS (Hanks’ balanced salt solution) and PBS. Recipe is automatically calculated based on desired volume. pH and molarity can be calculated automatically for acid-base derived buffers.
Serial dilution calculator – Serial dilutions are a common step in biological research, crafting a specially-tuned solution for use in later steps of an experiment. The serial dilution calculator generates a series of instructions to guide you through the dilution of any solution, given an initial concentration and dilution factor, or a concentration range.

Spectral Data

Extinction coefficient finder – The extinction coefficient represents the degree to which a compound attenuates light at a specific wavelength. Often, the specific wavelength of interest corresponds to the compound’s maximal absorbance. Together with quantum yield, the extinction coefficient is an important parameter in a compound’s “brightness”.
Spectrum viewer – An important step in experimental planning is choosing the right fluorophore. The spectrum viewer web application allows user to compare a vast library of fluorophores based on excitation and emission values. Explore which fluorophores are compatible with a particular instrument, laser, or filter set. Plan multiplex assays by choosing spectra with minimal overlap. Or choose spectra with optimal overlap for developing tandem and FRET based labels.

Other Tools

Degree of labeling calculator – One of the most important metrics in bioconjugation is the degree of labeling (DOL). This value represents the number of labels attached to each target (ie. protein). An optimal DOL is critical to the success of a conjugation. DOL values that are too high or too low tend to yield poor performing conjugates. This tool helps calculate the DOL of common label-target pairs. Requires absorbance values from a spectrophotometer or similar instrument.


iFluor Secondary Reagents

iFluor™ secondary detection reagents are optimized for use in a wide range of fluorescence-based applications, including cell-imaging, flow cytometry, and Read More...

Real-Time PCR (qPCR)

Real-time polymerase chain reaction, also referred to as quantitative PCR (qPCR), is a highly sensitive technique routinely used in molecular Read More...

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a core technique used extensively in molecular biology research to amplify a specific DNA template in Read More...

PCR Detection of Viral DNA/RNA

In viral diagnostics, nucleic acid amplification tests, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), permits the early detection and Read More...

Molecular Biology

DNA and RNA Quantitation PCR Detection of Viral DNA/RNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) Read More...

Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a core molecular technique used routinely in life science research to separate and analyze charged macromolecules. By Read More...

Gelite™ Safe DNA Gel Stain

The Best and Most Robust DNA Gel Stain Gelite™ Safe DNA gel stain is an extremely sensitive and stable fluorescent Read More...

AAT Bioquest FAQs

COVID-19 ResearchView all Products Look through out products or catalogues or scroll below to check out some of our FAQs Read More...

Power Styramide™ Signal Amplification (PSA™)

iFluor™ 488 Styramide Power Styramide™ Signal Amplification (PSA™) is a novel enzymatic amplification method used to detect low-abundance targets in Read More...

Actin

Probes for Imaging Actin Filaments Actin is a highly conserved family of proteins that form microfilaments. Due to its intracellular Read More...

Golgi Apparatus

The Golgi apparatus is a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays Read More...

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells. It is primarily responsible for the synthesis and Read More...

Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that separates the interior of all cells from their extracellular environment. It Read More...

Lysosomes

Lysosomes are the “waste-disposal” system of the cell digesting unwanted materials and cellular debris in the cytoplasm. They are membrane-enclosed Read More...

Nucleus

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a majority of the cell's genetic material (DNA) in the form Read More...

Mitochondria

Probes for Mitochondria Mitochondria are a distinctive, membrane-bound organelle present within all eukaryotic cells. As the primary site of ATP Read More...

Cell Structures and Organelles

Organelles are specialized structures that play a critical part in cellular function. Nearly all cellular activities are facilitated by organelles Read More...

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that are naturally produced as a byproduct of cellular metabolism. Under Read More...

NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides are abundant soluble cofactors that undergo reversible oxidation and reduction in major metabolic pathways. In cells they Read More...

Membrane Potential and Channels

Membrane potential is the difference in voltage between the interior and exterior of a cell. The membrane potential allows a Read More...